Tag Archive for: body systems

The human body’s capability is mind-boggling. Countless conscious and unconscious functions keep you moving, thinking, and…well, living. Like a well-oiled machine, it performs the same critical processes day after day. But of course, your body is not a machine—it’s an organism.

As it turns out, humans are pretty complex. And to understand how the body works, we need to understand its parts—that’s where this article comes in.

What is the Human Body Made of?

The human body is made up of trillions of cells. As the smallest living part of the human body, they’re made up of molecules which, in turn, are composed of elements. About two hundred different types of cells are found in the body, and each fulfills a different function. Red blood cells, for example, transport oxygen, while white blood cells help protect the body from infection.

And though it may seem strange, your cells are not permanent fixtures. Billions of cells in your body die every day—and billions are regenerated. This cellular turnover is a natural part of life within the human organism. Some cells, like skin cells, die and regenerate very frequently. Others, such as some cells found in bones, have much longer life cycles.

Not all cells work independently—some work in groups to perform larger body functions. But more on that in the next section.

A Closer Look at the Human Organism

While it is important to study cells and understand their roles, sometimes we need to look at the bigger picture. The structure of the human body can be viewed in several levels, each slightly more zoomed out than the last. They include: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism. Let’s break them down.

  • Cells: Your body is made up of trillions of cells—with more than two hundred distinct cell types that perform a specific function. As mentioned above, cells are the smallest living piece of a human body. And billions of your cells die and regenerate every day.
  • Tissues: Similar cells that group together to perform a joint function make up body tissue. The four main types include connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Each performs a general function but can also be broken down into specific sub-tissues with more defined functions. Muscle tissue, for instance, contracts and expands to move parts of the body—this is a general function. While cardiac muscle is a tissue that performs a specific job: contracting and expanding to pump blood through the body.
  • Organs: When two or more tissue types team up to perform a specific function, they form an organ. Although most of your body’s organs contain all four types of tissue. Organs perform specific tasks necessary for your body to function. The heart, for example, pumps oxygenated blood throughout your body. Your lungs bring oxygen into your body and expel carbon dioxide. And your liver helps remove toxins.
  • Organ systems: Groups of organs that work together form organ systems. For example, the brain and spinal cord are two distinct organs that contain nerves that transfer information throughout your body—both belong to the nervous system. The human body has eleven organ systems: cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune, integumentary, lymphatic, musculoskeletal, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary.
  • Human organism: All together these smaller pieces create a single living entity—the human organism. From the cellular level to your organ systems, each part of your body performs functions with the same ultimate goal: keeping you living and healthy.

Five Organs You Can’t Live Without

While each part of the human organism fulfills an integral role, some are more important than others. The human body contains five vital organs you can’t survive without—your brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs. Although its best to approach health and nutrition holistically, these key organs can help orient you as you study the intricacies of the human body.

More About Organ Systems

Now let’s take a closer look at your body’s eleven organ systems. As mentioned, each is made up of at least two organs as well as other tissues. Their unique body benefits are highlighted below:

  • Cardiovascular system: Made up of three major components—the heart, blood vessels, and blood—this system transports oxygen, nutrients, and carbon dioxide throughout your body. It works closely with the respiratory system to bring oxygen in and eject carbon dioxide out.
  • Digestive system: Your mouth, esophagus, stomach, and both your large and small intestines are the primary parts of this system, also called the gastrointestinal system. Certain nutrients are needed to survive, and thanks to your digestive system, your body can take in food and water, process it, and extract these vital nutrients.
  • Endocrine system: Your hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid glands release hormones into your body to activate changes and guide biological processes. Think of this system as an inner-body communication network that helps to regulate growth and development, homeostasis (constant internal balance), metabolism, mood, reproduction, sexual function, and your sleep-wake cycle.
  • Immune system: Not only does this proactive system defend your body against disease, it also plays a part in protecting it from pathogens. It includes your spleen, tonsils, thymus, and leukocytes (white blood cells).
  • Integumentary system: Made up of your skin, hair, and fingernails, this system is responsible for protecting against external microorganisms and for keeping fluids within your body.
  • Lymphatic system: Three organs—the lymph nodes, the lymph, and lymph vessels—help protect your body against diseases and infections.
  • Musculoskeletal system: As the name suggests, this system’s primary function is to use muscles and the skeleton to support your body’s soft tissue and allow for movement. And it may surprise you it also includes cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, which help connect bones and muscles to each other and to other parts of the body.
  • Nervous system: Composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory organs (skin, eyes, ears, tongue, and nose) this system’s primary function is to gather, transfer, and interpret the sensory information your body experiences. And, when necessary, it alerts other organs and systems. For example, if you see a car careening towards you (a visual stimulus), your nervous system may activate your fight-or-flight response, which tells your heart to beat more quickly, your lungs to breathe more rapidly, and your adrenal glands to release adrenaline.
  • Reproductive system: This life-giving system is responsible for conceiving and birthing offspring. The associated organs include genitalia, fallopian tubes, the uterus, the prostate, and more. It’s also responsible for producing gametes (or sex cells) and sex hormones—estrogen and testosterone—which play vital roles in human development and growth.
  • Respiratory system: The organs in this system—the lungs, larynx, pharynx, trachea, and diaphragm—are responsible for bringing oxygenated air into the body and expelling carbon dioxide. This vital system works closely with the cardiovascular system to provide your body with oxygen, which helps cells produce energy.
  • Urinary system: Also called the excretory system, it utilizes your kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra to remove water and waste materials from your body and help to maintain pH.

Understanding the Human Body: An Ongoing Journey

The human organism is so complex that it might seem impossible to fully comprehend—especially with a single article. But learning its basic structure is your first step to understanding how your body works.

So don’t stop here! Use what you’ve just read as motivation to dive deeper into one of nature’s biggest marvels: the human body.

Breathe in…breathe out. You typically do this 22,000 times a day, and yet it’s something most of us take for granted. It’s true, you don’t have to think much about it, your body just does it—first you inhale, then you exhale. But while taking a breath may seem simple at first glance, under the surface there’s a lot going on.  

If you’ve ever wondered about the science behind how you breathe, you’re in the right place.  

Your Respiratory System 

Eleven organ systems carry out a wide variety of essential functions in your body. And your respiratory system is the one responsible for breathing.  

It’s made up of numerous organs and tissues including:   

  1. Diaphragm: This dome-shaped muscle is located at the base of your chest cavity. As it contracts, the volume of the chest cavity increases, creating a lower pressure within the chest to draw air into the body.  
  2. Nasal Cavity and Mouth: Each breath of air enters your body through your nose or mouth. Nasal passages help to filter and humidify the air before it reaches the lungs, while your mouth serves as an alternate route. 
  3. Pharynx and Larynx: Your pharynx connects your mouth and nasal passages to your esophagus. The larynx is the muscular organ that controls your vocal cords. Together, these structures serve as a crucial gateway to allow air to pass through to your lower respiratory tract. 
  4. Trachea (Windpipe): This strong tube reinforced by rings of cartilage allows air to pass to and from your lungs. 
  5. Bronchus: Your windpipe splits into two bronchi linking to each of your lungs, where they further divide into many bronchiole passages resembling the branches of a tree. 
  6. Lungs: Your primary respiratory organs are a pair of spongy, pinkish-grey structures in your chest cavity. They inflate with air each time you inhale and deflate when you exhale. 
  7. Capillaries: These networks of tiny blood vessels pull oxygen from your lungs into your bloodstream.  

Working together, these various organs, tissues, and structures allow you to breathe, speak, smell, and more. But let’s focus on breathing. 

The Process of Breathing 

Breathing has two main parts—inhalation and exhalation—and each requires the coordinated effort of multiple muscles. Prior to and during inhalation your diaphragm and surrounding muscles contract. Your chest expands and your lungs fill with air. As these muscles relax, your chest contracts forcing the air out of your lungs—in other words, you exhale.  

Your body isn’t inhaling and exhaling for fun, it’s fulfilling your need for oxygen.  

Your cells use oxygen (and glucose) to create energy through a process called cellular respiration. For this to take place, however, oxygen needs to get from your lungs to cells throughout your body. This is where blood comes in.  

Gas Exchange in the Alveoli 

Your bronchial tubes branch off into smaller airways, called bronchioles. They’re connected to alveoli—tiny, grape-like air sacs in your lungs that are surrounded by capillaries. This is where gas exchange happens, one of the most important steps of breathing.  

Your alveoli are like microscopic balloons, filling with air each time you breathe in. Oxygen from this air is absorbed by blood passing through the surrounding capillaries. This newly oxygenated blood is then delivered through your body by the cardiovascular system—but let’s save that for another article.  

Cellular respiration creates energy; but it also creates waste products, including carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide is contained in deoxygenated blood. When blood passes through the capillaries an exchange occurs—oxygen enters the blood (as mentioned above) and carbon dioxide exits the blood, moving to the air held in the alveoli. This air is then exhaled to expel the carbon dioxide from your body.  

How to Keep Your Lungs Healthy 

Your lungs are the center of your respiratory system. And healthy lungs are crucial for efficient, healthy breathing. Fortunately, there are a number of steps you can take to keep your lungs healthy and happy.  

Lungs are sensitive to smoke and pollutants, and breathing these substances in can be harmful to your lung health. Cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke, can damage the bronchioles and alveoli in your lungs, making it harder for your body to deliver oxygen to its cells. To avoid this, try to stay away from cigarette smoke and smog. If you are going to be exposed to harsh chemicals, excessive air pollution, or other damaging substances, wear a mask or respirator to filter damaging substances out of the air.

Regular exercise can also help your lungs (and heart) work more efficiently. As you exercise, your lungs and the muscles associated with breathing are working overtime to provide your body oxygen. Even light, daily exercise can strengthen your lungs, heart, and other muscles. The stronger these organs and muscles are, the better your body is at delivering oxygen to its cells.  

Respiratory Conditions: Health Factors That Affect Your Lungs 

Environmental factors, such as pollutants, aren’t the only things that can affect your respiratory system. Sicknesses, and chronic health conditions can also impact your ability to breathe.  

Lung capacity naturally decreases with age, meaning as you get older your lungs become less efficient. For older adults, maintaining lung health through exercise and by avoiding damaging substances is extra important.  

Additionally, certain health conditions may require medical assessment and intervention. Whether it’s due to asthma, severe allergies, or a persistent cold, consulting a doctor is often an important step in maintaining the health of your respiratory system. Certain illnesses, such as the common cold and flu, can develop into serious infections and even pneumonia. So if you feel like your respiratory system isn’t working as it should, it’s worth a trip to the doctor.  

The Bottom Line: A Healthy Body Needs Healthy Lungs 

Breathing is a vital part of life. Without oxygen your cells can’t create energy. And without your cells producing energy most organs, tissues, and other body parts can’t do their job. The brain can only go four minutes without oxygen before it suffers permanent damage.  

Needless to say, a healthy respiratory system is indispensable to a healthy lifestyle. So take care of your lungs—you’ve only got two. 

You’re probably already familiar with many of the oft-cited benefits of exercise. It’s good for your heart, it can help you maintain a healthy weight, it’s good for your lungs, and the list goes on. It seems as though scientists are constantly uncovering new ways exercise can help you keep your body healthy and happy.

Detoxing and cleanses are hot topics in healthy living. And, naturally, people have started to explore the ties between exercise and the body’s detox processes. There’s a lot of information kicking around the internet on the subject. You may have encountered some already. A portion of this information is rooted in credible, scientific research, but a lot of it comes from less-credible sources.

The trick is sorting the facts from the fiction. That’s where the advice below comes in. Keep reading to learn all about the role exercise plays—and doesn’t play—in your body’s detox processes.

What is Detoxing Anyway? Learn the Basics

Detoxing was initially very specific, only talking about removing drugs, alcohol, or poison. In recent years, however, the term has been extended to the removal of any toxins from the body—whether they’re alcohol, chemicals, or bodily waste.

Through the combined effort of your liver, kidneys, and intestines, your body removes toxins from itself every day of your life. These processes are natural, and, for the most part, there’s not much you can do to change them.

Most detox tips and tricks are based on the idea that your body needs a little extra push to fully remove toxins. There’s a lot of pseudoscience out there, so be sure to complete your due diligence. (More on that here!)

The Science Behind the Role of Exercise in Detox

Where cardio, weight lifting, or any of your other favorite workouts fit into the detox picture depends on who you ask.

Some exercise routines are touted as detox workouts—meaning they somehow facilitate the better or more efficient removal of toxins from your body. Others claim that as you work up a sweat, you release toxins out through your pores.

The science behind these claims is shaky.

But here’s what science does tell us: exercise can help your body detox—by helping maintain liver and kidney health. It’s all about taking care of your body’s natural defenses and processes.

Exercise also has a positive impact on one of your body’s other defenses against toxins: the lymphatic system. The two parts of this important system are lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Together, they send lymph fluid—which helps you maintain healthy immunity and helps protect you from other harmful substances—throughout your body. Regular exercise has been shown to help increase the body’s circulation of lymph fluid, helping you flush out toxins and bacteria more effectively.

A Fun Fact About the Lungs and Detox

With every breath, your lungs help detox your body by expelling carbon dioxide. This gas is a toxic byproduct of energy metabolism. So the more you exercise, the more carbon dioxide your lungs have to remove.

Don’t worry though, regular exercise (and not smoking) is one of the most important things you can do to optimize the strength, efficiency, and overall health of your lungs. The work they go through to pull in extra oxygen and expel carbon dioxide during exercise will only help you in the long run.

Can You Sweat Out Toxins?

If you’ve ever exercised, you’ve worked up a sweat. Heck, even if you’ve never exercised, you’ve probably been uncomfortably sweaty at some point. It happens. Sweat is one of your body’s primary temperature regulation mechanisms. If your body feels itself overheating, it releases sweat to cool you back down.

But what if sweat did more? What if your body’s cooling system also helped purge your system of toxins? It’s an appealing idea and seems plausible enough. But unfortunately, it is mostly wishful thinking.

Although there are a few studies that suggest sweat may contain heavy metals and other toxins, the general consensus is that sweating does what it is meant to, i.e. cools your body, and not much else.

At the end of the day, your sweat is mostly water with a little bit of salt.

The Key to Detox is a Happy Liver and Exercise Can Help

Sweating might not be a detox mechanism, but don’t write off exercise just yet. There are a number of other ways a good workout can help your body take care of toxins. And chief among these is keeping your liver healthy.

Your liver is like a pool filter—it sifts the bad from the good. Then it breaks down and disposes of the unwanted debris. Sure, this is a simplification of the process, but it gets the point across. The liver is the single most important piece of your body’s detoxing puzzle.

Here’s another fact about the liver: it works hard. And it works a lot. You can make your liver’s job easier by drinking in moderation, maintaining a healthy weight, and eating healthy. But it will naturally experience some wear and tear. This often takes the form of fat build up in the liver. (Fat build up isn’t an immediate health risk, but can lead to scarring of the liver known as fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis.)

This is where exercise comes into play.

In a study of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease—a health condition commonly associated with obesity—regular exercise was shown to reduce the amount of fat on the liver. This held true for aerobic exercise (jogging, biking, etc.) and resistance training (weight lifting, body weight exercises, etc.). Additionally, patients saw a reduction in liver fat regardless of weight loss.

So what does this mean? Put simply, any exercise routine you choose will help keep your liver healthy—so long as you’re doing it regularly. It doesn’t matter if you choose Pilates, cycling, swimming, or free-weight training. And even if you’re not losing weight, your liver is still being supported.

What About the Kidneys and Exercise?

The liver does a lot of your body’s detoxing legwork, but it’s not a one-organ show. Your kidneys are also involved in the process—especially when it comes to filtering liquids. As blood flows from your liver to the kidneys, your other important detox organs remove urea and other waste from the blood. These waste products are then expelled from your body via urine.

It’s natural for your kidneys to be impacted as you age, just like any other part of your body. And like the rest of your body, the better you care for yourself and your health, the healthier your kidneys will stay.

Just like the liver, your kidneys are affected by your lifestyle choices. The harder you make them work, the quicker they will be negatively impacted. On the flip side, some studies have linked regular exercise to healthier kidneys. So in other words, the more you exercise, the longer you can keep your kidneys working at their best.

The Role of Exercise in Mental Detoxing

One form of detoxification that is often overlooked is mental detox. Over the course of the day, you encounter countless stressors—some bigger than others. And these stressors can pile up from day to day, adding to your baseline level of stress and anxiety.

People cope with stress in a variety of ways, but one of the most common forms of mental detox is exercise. While you are active, your body naturally releases chemicals called endorphins that relieve stress and elevate your mood. (If you’ve ever heard the phrase “runner’s high,” this is what’s being described.)

These endorphins, combined with the sense of accomplishment that often accompanies exercise, can help dispel stress, giving you a mental detox.

Start Actively Supporting Your Body’s Natural Defenses Against Toxins

At the end of the day, there’s never a quick fix for detoxing your body. There’s no miracle workout that will help rid your system of toxins. No amount of sweating will keep your body free of unwanted substances. (But all that exercise might dehydrate you, so be sure to drink plenty of water!)

Although no quick fix exists, there is a simple one: exercise regularly and maintain a healthy diet. This tried-and-true approach will help keep your body’s natural toxic defenders—your kidneys and liver—working smoothly.

In recent years, detox has become a bit of a buzzword. Whether it’s a juice cleanse or a special diet, you’ve likely heard of detoxing in one form or another—maybe you’ve even tried one of these approaches yourself.

Detoxing is based on the idea that the human body is swimming in environmental toxins that you can, and should,  remove . What’s not to like, right? Toxins are bad, so naturally you’d want them out of your body.

Unfortunately, it’s not that simple. As with many health topics, there’s a lot of misinformation about detoxification out there. And, in pursuit of a healthier lifestyle, there’s a good chance you’ll encounter some of these detox myths. So keep reading to sort the detox facts from fiction!

Are There Really Toxins in My Body?

Let’s start with the very premise of detoxification. If you’re hoping to detox your body, there have to be toxins to remove in the first place. So are there really toxins in your body?

In short, yes. But the long answer unravels some important complexities.

The term “detox” has traditionally been used in medical contexts to describe the process of removing alcohol, drugs, or poison from a patient. This might mean pumping a patient’s stomach, administering an antidote, or, as is often the case, simply letting the body dispel the toxins itself.

In a health context, however, detoxification is applied to any toxins in the body, not just those outlined above. This might include alcohol, but not life-threatening amounts of it. Other toxins that are present in most people’s bodies include waste matter and digestive byproducts (in other words, the substances in your poop), chemicals, pollutants, and pesticides. These toxins come from the air, cleaning products, smoking, and even your food.

Although these toxins are likely present in your body, there’s no cause for alarm. Your body has mechanisms and organs for protecting you against these types of toxins.

How Does the Body Remove These Toxins?

As mentioned above, you’re not completely defenseless against any toxins that may be present in your body—in fact, your body is already well-equipped to detox itself.

One of the most obvious ways your body removes toxins is by excreting waste in feces and urine. These natural processes help remove unnecessary, and in some cases, harmful substances from your body. Think about the last time you had a stomach bug. Your bowel activity probably amped up. This is your body’s way of trying to flush out—pun intended—whatever is irritating it.

As far as detox processes go, you’re probably pretty familiar with peeing and pooping. You may be less familiar with your body’s internal detox systems. Your kidneys and intestines both help filter and remove toxins from your food and beverages, but there’s one organ that does most of the leg work: the liver.

Whether it is removing bacteria from your blood, converting ammonia (a toxin) into urea (a component of urine), or helping process drugs, your liver stays busy. The liver is basically the body’s filter: substances pass through it and it removes toxins. Many medications, for example, are not initially usable by the body—they are too toxic. The liver breaks these drugs down into less toxic and more usable forms, allowing your medication to actually do its job.

The detox processes outlined above all happen naturally—you don’t have much, if any, control over them. And so, at this point, you may be wondering what elements of detoxing you can actually influence.

Does the Body Ever Need Help Detoxing?

Nobody is disputing the fact that the body naturally removes toxins on its own—and if they were, there’s not any science to back them up. So what’s with all the detox diets, hacks, and products?

People love a quick fix. But when it comes to helping your body detox and cleanse, there rarely is a quick fix. This doesn’t mean that you can’t help support your body’s detox processes to maintain efficiency and effectiveness—it’ll just take time and commitment.

Your body’s ability to remove toxins is impacted most by your lifestyle: your diet, exercise habits, and other choices. As discussed above, your liver is your biggest detoxing asset. And so you’ll want to take care of it.

Liver health is impacted by a variety of factors ranging from your alcohol consumption to the foods you eat. And, as with many aspects of a healthy lifestyle, it’s all about moderation. Drinking a little bit of alcohol won’t damage your liver. As soon as that drinking becomes excessive, however, your liver will start to wear out. It is, after all, working harder. Binge drinking can lead to scarring and swelling of the liver, which can cause complications down the road.

Foods such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower can help support liver health. Similarly, some studies have linked coffee consumption to maintaining liver longevity and health.

Naturally, you’ll want to avoid those oft-warned against vices: too much sugar, excessively fatty foods, and smoking, as well.

Dispelling Detox Myths

At this point, you should have enough knowledge to assess most detox myths and products on your own. Just for good measure, let’s take a look at two common detox myths below:

  • You can Sweat Out Toxins: One of the more popular rumors about exercise is that you can actually sweat out toxins. It’s an appealing idea: you work up a sweat on the treadmill, help keep yourself in good shape, and, as an added bonus, purge your body of harmful substances. If it sounds too good to be true, that’s because it is.
    Sweat is almost entirely water. There’s a little bit of salt in there, but that’s about it. Sweating is the body’s way of cooling itself, not ridding itself of toxins. However, this doesn’t mean that exercise doesn’t play a part in detoxing. Exercise helps promote liver health—and if there’s one thing you should take away from this article, it’s that the liver is your detox workhorse.
  • Detoxing can Help You Lose Weight: Many detox products and diets are marketed as weight-management solutions. While fasting, juice cleanses, and other detox regimens may help you shed a few pounds in the short run, studies have shown that they are rarely long-term solutions for a healthy weight.
  • Your Body Needs Help Detoxing: As mentioned above, your body already has several lines of defense against toxins. And several mechanisms for removing them from your body. Most detox products claim to do one of two things: help your body’s natural detox processes work more efficiently or remove toxins in a way your body doesn’t already do (i.e. pulling toxins out of the skin etc.). Most of the time, your body doesn’t actually need any help—as long as you’re maintaining a healthy lifestyle and diet, your natural detox systems should be able to handle themselves.
  • You can Remove Toxins Topically: The skin has pores—if you’ve ever had a zit you’re all too familiar with this fact. And so it seems logical that toxins could be removed through those pores. There are a number of products that claim to do just that—whether it’s through your feet, face, or another patch of skin. In reality, your skin is designed to keep toxins out, to protect you. And it’s good at its job. You can clean your pores by removing dirt, grime, and built up oil, but toxins won’t be coming out.

Moderation and Management: Keeping Toxins Out of Your Body

It can be difficult to escape the flashy claims of fast fixes and detox fads—they sure seem appealing. And they’re designed to! But remember, when in doubt, return to the tried and true approaches to health. Helping your body rid itself of toxins is all about moderation and lifestyle management: try to eat a well-balanced diet (with an extra dose of broccoli!). Drink in moderation, and, if you haven’t already, try to quit smoking. And, of course, exercise a few times a week.

No matter where you are on your health journey, it’s never too late—or too early—to throw your body’s detox processes a bone. Or, in this case, some broccoli.

You’re often advised to “stop and smell the roses.” That’s because experiencing and appreciating your surroundings’ sensory inputs—rosy scents, burning sunsets, and soothing sounds—is peaceful and grounding. This mindful approach to life is enhanced by habits that help keep your senses sharp. In other words: learning how to take care of your senses helps your search for serenity.

The sections below will walk you through tips for caring for your senses, one by one. You may learn your healthy habits already form a foundation of care for your five senses that you didn’t realize existed.


The top layer of the dermis and bottom part of your epidermis house sensitive touch receptors. That’s why caring for your skin is essential to supporting your sense of touch. Try to incorporate these five skin-savvy lifestyle habits:

  1. Secure Sun Protection: You can choose sunscreen, long-sleeve shirts, a floppy hat, or a combination of all three. Use whatever works best for you to protect your skin from the searing rays of the sun.
  2. Eat Healthy to Achieve Skin Nutrition: Diet impacts your health from head to toe, inside and out. Opt for healthy, plant-focused meals and snacks to provide the nutritional skincare you need.
  3. Avoid Burn and Injury: You probably don’t need more of a reason than the pain you could experience. But avoiding injury will help maintain your sense of touch.
  4. Stay Active: Moving your body helps so many aspects of your health. And skin is certainly one. A heart-pounding workout does wonders to help your circulation, which is great for your organs—including the skin.
  5. Achieve Healthy Hydration: Drinking plenty of water is essential to maintaining your overall health, as well as supporting healthy skin. So keep sipping throughout the day—your skin will thank you.


A lot goes into building the perfect palate—including understanding the connection between taste and smell. But maintaining the foundation of an optimal, healthy sense of taste starts with just three lifestyle tips:

  1. Dish Up Variety: Trying new cuisines, seeking exotic flavors, and packing your diet with a variety of foods keeps your sense of taste sharp. Making your food pop with a variety of spices can also help you avoid over-salting or excessive sweetening your diet. With interesting, diverse flavors, you won’t hamper your palate with too much salt or sugar.
  2. Watch Your Mouth: Taste is on the tip of your tongue—and all throughout your mouth, too. Maintain solid dental hygiene (yes, that includes flossing) and check in to see what your tongue might be telling you about your health. Going to see your dentist a couple times a year is also helpful.
  3. Don’t Smoke: You know smoking is horrible for your overall health, and it especially wreaks havoc on your sense of taste. Smoke a tasty brisket, but avoid smoking cigarettes.


Your sense of smell is pretty resilient, but healthy habits can also help protect it and the connection it has to taste. Your sense of smell is also helped by maintaining a varied diet and practicing adventurous eating. Smoking is about the worst thing you can do if you’re trying to optimize your sense of smell—especially how it mixes with taste to help you fully experience flavors.


It’s time to open your eyes to five of the best lifestyle additions that will help you care for your sense of sight. And it will come as no surprise that they all revolve around keeping your eyeballs as safe and stress-free as possible.

Take a look:

  1. Eat Eye-Supporting Foods: Large, well-conducted studies have drawn a bright line between certain nutrients and supporting eye health. Your healthy, plant-forward diet will help you acquire many of the most important eye-supporting nutrients.
  2. Shade Up: Sunglasses are really cool. They’re also a fashion statement with an eye-health function. Your eyes, like your skin, need protection from the sun. The best way is to slap on some awesome shades.
  3. Consider Your Screen Time: Some sights strain your eyes more than others. The screens that dominate modern life just happen to be super stressful for our eyes. So limit screen time, or think about some glasses that help block some of the harsh blue light shining from your phone or computer.
  4. Make Friends with Your Eye Doctor: You don’t have to invite him or her over for dinner, but they are very helpful for maintaining your sense of sight. Make sure to keep your yearly optometrist appoints.
  5. Shield Your Eyes from Harm: Everything from fingers to metal fragments can hurt your eyes—and, thus, your vision. When you’re playing sports or working with potentially dangerous materials (like wood chips, screws, or chemicals), wear the proper eye protection. Donning some safety glasses or goggles might make all the difference for the health of your eyes.


You can only beat your eardrums so much before your hearing is impacted. Instead of testing your auditory equipment, stick to a couple of obvious, but helpful, healthy hearing habits.

First, keep the volume down. Avoiding exposure to loud noises is probably the best way to help maintain good hearing. That means you may need to seek the quite comfort of hushed hobbies.

And, if you can’t avoid it, try the second habit: cover your ears. You can still rock out at a concert, work with loud machinery, or enjoy other cacophonous activities as long as you protect your eardrums.

Cells are the building blocks of life, and they come in all shapes and sizes. Some cells are round and small, others are larger and web-like. No matter their look, the cells in your body are highly complex, elegant machines that make life possible.

The variety of cell shapes and sizes is essential. Your body always has a lot going on. Cells need to differentiate and specialize, channeling their energy toward specific tasks. Let’s explore the variety of cells in your body and learn more about their anatomy, function, and individual characteristics.

Go Deep Inside Your Cells

Diversity starts inside the cell— with cellular organelles. These teeny-tiny membrane assemblies fill your cell and help it perform its specific functions. There are many organelles, and you’ll read about a couple of the most important ones.

The organelles that operate inside of cells are necessary for completing designated assignments. Not every cell has every type of organelle. But all cells rely on these structures to work effectively.

Cell Membrane

The lipids that surround the cell and give it shape are organized into a two-layered barrier called a membrane. Cell membranes are made of fats and proteins. The fatty portions of the membrane keep water out of the cell, while the proteins allow nutrients and water to pass through.

Your cells need a membrane to stay organized, compact, and protect their contents from the surrounding body fluids. You can visualize a cell membrane by dropping a bit of oil into a cup of water. The micelles that form from mixing oil and water are a lot like the fatty membrane that encapsulates your cells.


Mitochondria are the organelles that power the cell. It’s in and around the mitochondria that the food you eat is converted to cellular energy (or ATP as it’s known inside the cell).

Mitochondria are commonly referred to as the “powerhouses” of the cell. But these compact generators weren’t always stuck inside cells. Scientific research suggests that mitochondria were at one time their own cellular bodies. There is unique genetic information stored inside mitochondria. This material is called mitochondrial DNA.

As life evolved, it’s believed mitochondria were recruited by cells as an energy source. Now when cells divide, mitochondria replicate inside the cell along with the other organelles.

Here’s a fun fact: every cell in your body contains mitochondria except red blood cells.


Cells need to be able to produce proteins. Ribosomes are the center of protein production inside the cell. They use specialized codes to read the information stored in RNA molecules (genetic directions for building proteins). Ribosomes create nucleic acids and proteins from the instructions found in RNA.


In the nucleus, you’ll find all the blueprints for a cell. The nucleus is the cell’s “brain.” It sends out instructions about how the cell should function, and it houses the DNA needed to replicate the cell.

This organelle is often depicted in images as the dark center of a cell. It’s densely packed with DNA that is sensitive to degradation and damage from the environment around it. A double-layered membrane surrounds the nucleus to protect the DNA stored inside.

Cell Types Explained

Now that you understand some of the crucial cellular operation centers, let’s zoom out to discuss different cell types. Hundreds of specialized cells are inside your body right now. A student of science like yourself could spend a lifetime learning about each and every cell type.

Instead of debating the minutia of each type, here are the basics about some of the most common varieties of cells in your body.

1. Skin and Epithelial Cells

The cells you can most easily see are your skin cells. That’s because the largest and outermost organ of your body is made entirely of special skin cells—also called epithelial cells. These epithelial cells that create the meshwork of your skin are the same type of cells that line your digestive tract, blood vessels, and hollow organs.

Skin cells have unique properties. These special attributes help explain the function of your epithelial cells. Here are a few ways skin cells can work in your body:

  • Skin cells come together to create tissues that can secrete mucus, sweat, and oil.
  • Epithelial cells harden through a process called keratinization to protect your body from invading pathogens and injuries.
  • They also pigment the skin. A protein (melanin) in your skin cells that influences your skin color, and whether or not you have freckles.
  • Skin cells also keep you hydrated. Those outermost skin cells protecting your softer insides are great at trapping water beneath your skin.
  • Inside your body epithelial cells secrete mucus. The lining of your esophagus, nasal passages, and intestines are all made of epithelial cells that lubricate these surfaces.

2. Blood Cells

Red and white blood cells circulate all over your body to deliver oxygen, carry away carbon dioxide waste, and play the starring role in your immune system. Their ubiquitous nature might make them seem simple, but there’s more to these blood cells than you might think.

Red blood cells (RBCs) are also called erythrocytes. They are unique because they do not have a nucleus (unlike most other cells). Because they lack a nucleus, RBCs are hollow in the center—kind of like a donut. Their unique shape makes them more efficient at exchanging and transporting oxygen molecules—their primary role in your body.

Without a nucleus and other organelle structures, RBCs cannot replicate on their own. Instead, your body generates new red blood cells in bone marrow tissue.

RBCs use a protein called hemoglobin to carry oxygen throughout your body. The hemoglobin inside RBCs gives blood its signature red color.

White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes, are agents of the immune system. They search for invading pathogens and initiate and complete your body’s immune responses.

There are two main classes of WBCs—granulocytes and mononuclear leukocytes:

  • As the name suggests, granulocytes are WBCs filled with granules. Inside each granule are proteins and enzymes that can digest and destroy pathogens. Granulocytes are responsible for the creation of pus, and they play an important role in allergies.
  • Mononuclear leukocytes don’t have granules. Instead, they have one large nucleus and special organelles called lysosomes. These lysosomes act like holding cells for microbes and other potential pathogens. Mononuclear leukocytes can use these lysosomes to trap and destroy invaders through a process called endocytosis.

3. Nerve and Brain Cells

The brain is full of spidery cells that allow you to think, read, move, and remember. Brain cells are the main components of your central nervous system. They use chemical messengers called neurotransmitters to communicate between other body cells.

Two kinds of brain cells exist in your body—neurons and glia. Both are necessary for efficient electro-chemical signaling throughout the body.

Neurons are web-shaped brain cells with a central body called a soma. All neurons have branched appendages called dendrites that can receive electro-chemical messages from neighboring neurons. A neuron can transmit signals along the longest portion of its cell body, called the axon.

Glial cells look a lot like neurons, but they differ in one important way: Glia cannot transmit electrical signals like neurons can. Their purpose is to support the transmission of electro-chemical signals from neurons by acting as insulation. Glial cells make it possible for tiny electro-chemical messages to travel the entire length of the body. Their insulating role speeds up signaling across long distances.

4. Muscle Cells

Your heart, hamstrings, and every other muscle in your body are composed of muscle cells—also known as muscle fibers. These fibers wrap tightly around each other like bundles of strong, stretchy cords to create your muscles.

Individual muscle fibers contain filamentous proteins that allow the fiber to lengthen and contract. These proteins are called actin, myosin, and titin. Each has a role in the contraction-relaxation cycle of a muscle fiber.

Nerve cells from the central and peripheral nervous system send messages to muscle fibers to coordinate your movements. Some muscle movements are voluntary, like lifting your hand to wave hello. Other muscle fiber contractions are unconscious or involuntary, such as the constriction of your pupils in bright light.

There are three main types of muscle fibers and muscle tissue, and each kind of tissue utilizes muscle fibers differently:

  • Skeletal muscle cells are under conscious control. These muscle fibers attach directly to bones via tendons. Skeletal muscle fibers are long and cylindrical, like tubes that bundle together. These muscle cells are also multi-nucleate, which means they have more than one nucleus.
  • Smooth muscles are made up of smooth muscle fibers. You can find smooth muscle fibers inside of the organs of your body. Your eyes, stomach, bladder, intestines, and blood vessels are all built with smooth muscle tissue. Unlike skeletal muscle, you do not have voluntary control over smooth muscle fibers.
  • What makes cardiac muscle cells unique is their location. These muscle fibers can only be found in one place—your heart. Cardiac muscle cells are ultra-strong, elastic cells that allow your heart to pump blood in one coordinated and efficient heartbeat.

5. Fat Cells

Fat storage is a sometimes-taboo topic. But the cells that house fat are extremely valuable to your body. Adipocytes are fat cells, and when they assemble together they make up fat tissue.

Try to break out of the “fat = bad” mindset for a minute. Your body stores fat just like a bank stores money. Having fat on hand is essential when your body needs energy. And adipocytes house the fat your body wants or needs to save for later use.

Brown adipocytes are sometimes called “baby fat.” These fat cells are so named because you have lots of brown fat cells during infancy. The primary role of brown fat is thermogenesis (heat) and these adipocytes maintain body heat because they are full of mitochondria. Infants depend on brown fat reserves because they lack the ability to shiver or use other means to warm themselves.

As you age, your supply of brown fat cells shrinks, but doesn’t go away entirely. Current scientific research suggests that the mitochondria that fill brown fat cells disappear as you get older, causing the brown fat you stored in infancy to resemble white fat cells.

The main function of white fat cells is energy storage. When glucose isn’t available from your diet, a process called gluconeogenesis kicks in. Through gluconeogenesis, fat can be broken down and converted to usable glucose molecules to power the rest of the cells in your body. Fat available for gluconeogenesis comes from the white adipocytes you may be trying to burn during exercise.

Cellular Health Comes First

You are the cells in your body, and it’s important to take good care of them. No matter the cellular type, complete nutrition is the best way to help your cells thrive. Focus your eating on foods that will deliver nourishing vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients to your cells. Be picky about what you put into your body. Steer clear of over-processed and nutrient-poor foods. Instead, build your meals with the quality nutrition of whole foods—lean proteins, plant-based fats, fiber, vegetables, and fruit.

Prioritizing the health of your cells will pay dividends in your overall wellness. When your cellular health is soaring, you feel great, too. Channel your energy into supporting your cells with a diet rich in essential vitamins and minerals. Whole nutrition from quality foods can optimize the health and wellbeing of the cells that make you.

A healthy diet and plenty of water are benchmarks for proper nutrition. But how your body removes waste is equally as important as what goes into your system. Your kidneys are responsible for removing waste products from the body—along with other crucial actions. And while much focus is placed on other organ-specific health—like your heart and liver—learning how to take care of your kidneys can be a cornerstone of optimal health.

Your kidneys perform a variety of tasks:

  • waste removal via urine
  • balancing your body’s fluid levels
  • releasing hormones to help maintain normal blood pressure
  • activate vitamin D into a usable form used to help promote bone health
  • control the production of red blood cells

Your kidneys regulate so many key functions to maintain your whole-body health. That’s why kidney health is crucial to keep your body operating at peak performance.

Learn more about how kidneys function, the ways vitamin D and kidney health connect, and how to take care of your kidneys—including the fuel they need for optimal health.

How Kidneys Function

Make a fist. That’s approximately the size of your kidney. You’re born with two kidneys located in the back of your abdomen, just under your ribcage on each side of the spine. They are slightly different sizes. Your right kidney is smaller and sits lower to make room for your liver.

To oversimplify how kidneys function, consider this: blood comes into the kidney and is filtered, good blood then returns to the circulatory system by way of the renal vein, and waste is expelled though the ureter into the bladder.

Taking a deeper look starts with a discussion of anatomy. Your kidneys contain millions of functioning units called nephrons. A nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. They filter blood plasma to produce urine, while also reabsorbing water, sodium, and glucose back into the circulatory system.

Each nephron contains a renal corpuscle (the blood filtering component of the kidney) and a renal tubule (a secondary collection system for the filtered blood). Blood first passes into the renal corpuscle and enters a filtration space called the glomerulus. The glomerulus has a special barrier that keeps blood cells, proteins, and larger molecules in the blood, while allowing water, ions, and smaller molecules to exit the blood. This is the first step in creating urine.

At this point, the soon-to-be urine has most of the water and electrolytes that were in the blood. While the blood is lacking in these nutrients. The renal tubule moves most of the water, electrolytes, and other nutrients back into the blood. It leaves behind some water, urea, and other waste products.

This is one reason why staying hydrated is important. Without enough water, the kidneys can struggle to filter everything out and then pull the essential nutrients back into the bloodstream.

After filtering is complete, blood exits the kidney through the renal vein back to the heart. The waste and toxins pulled from the blood stream are sent through the ureter to the bladder for urination.

More Than a Filter

Balance in life is crucial, and your kidneys contribute to the balance in your circulatory system. Kidneys help regulate extracellular fluid volume, important to keep blood flowing to vital organs.

Examples of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid, blood plasma, and lymph. The kidney also controls osmolarity and ion concentrations, making sure the extracellular fluids don’t become too diluted or concentrated. Osmolarity is key for proper fluid transportation because it’s a mechanism that allows extracellular fluids to pass across one membrane into another.

This ensures consistent levels of key ions (charged atoms or molecules)—including sodium, potassium, and calcium. Your kidneys also help with the regulation of blood plasma pH levels, which prevents your blood from becoming too acidic or basic.

Finally, kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin (EPO). EPO plays a role in the production of red blood cells. Acting like a shield, EPO protects red blood cells during infancy, and, in turn, stimulates the stem cells in bone marrow to increase the production of additional red blood cells. Because red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, it is important to maintain a proper level of EPO to maintain healthy production of new red blood cells.

Vitamin D and Kidney Health

Vitamin D is often called the “sunshine vitamin” because it can be produced in your skin from a response to sunlight. The kidneys play a key role in converting vitamin D into a useful nutrient for the body. People acquire vitamin D from two places: exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet B radiation and from their diet—food and supplements.

The kidneys pull vitamin D out of the blood, which is then sent to the skeletal system. But vitamin D is important for many reasons. An example is how it helps to regulate the amount of calcium and phosphate in your body to maintain healthy, normal levels. Specifically, vitamin D helps support healthy calcium absorption from the intestines. And when your body has optimal levels of calcium, it can maintain healthy bones, teeth, and muscles.

Through vitamin D, you can see why learning how to take care of your kidneys benefits other key organs and systems in your body, as well.

Tips on How to Take Care of Your Kidneys

You’ve learned how kidneys function. Now let’s explore how you can support optimal kidney health. Caring for your kidneys can have overlapping benefits for the rest of your body. And simple lifestyle changes go a long way to promote good kidney health and improve your general well-being.

  1. Stay Hydrated

Water is vital for good health, and it certainly assists your kidneys. Drinking eight glasses of water a day helps your kidneys have the fluid necessary to remove excessive sodium and toxins from your system.

The eight glasses number isn’t a recommendation. In fact, the exact volume of water you need to consume depends on your health and lifestyle. A good indicator you’re drinking enough water is straw-colored urine. If urine is too dark, it may be a sign of dehydration. Too clear, and you’re drinking too much water.

  1. Monitor Blood Pressure

The kidneys play an important role in blood pressure regulation. Healthy blood pressure readings are between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg. Anything higher is considered to be elevated blood pressure. Your circulatory system and kidneys work in concert to keep your blood flowing at an even, healthy level. Speak to your physician or health-care provider if you have concerns about your blood pressure.

  1. Maintain Normal, Healthy Blood Sugar Levels

Keeping your blood sugar in the normal, healthy range helps maintain your kidney and overall health. Your kidneys are already hard at work filtering nutrients from your blood back into your body and removing waste. So keep your kidneys running smoothly by maintaining healthy blood sugar levels in the normal range.

  1. Exercise and Remain Active

While you can’t flex your kidneys, you can support them by walking, swimming, or cycling 150 minutes a week. Anything—from hikes in the forest to dancing—can help you stay closer to your ideal weight and avoid putting additional strain on your kidneys. Being overweight can raise your blood pressure, which is bad for your kidneys. But regular exercise is good for your waistline and your overall health.

  1. Eat a Healthy Diet

Diet and exercise go hand-in-hand for good health. But if you really want to show your kidneys some love, you’ll eat a low-sodium diet. Excessive sodium in your system is difficult for your kidneys to filter out. Consider eating a diet rich in fresh vegetables, fruit, fish, and whole grains. Avoid kidney-damaging foods like processed meats, excessive dairy, and packaged meals.

  1. Don’t Smoke

There are a thousand reasons to quit smoking. Here’s one more: Nicotine is bad for blood pressure, and therefore bad for kidney health.

Did You Know?

  • You Only Need One Kidney to Live. You’re born with around 1.5 million nephrons—about 750,000 per kidney. You only need 300,000 to filter your blood daily.
  • Hearts Pump, Kidneys Filter. Your kidneys filter half-a-cup of blood every minute. This is about 45 gallons of blood per day.
  • Same but Different. Kidneys are asymmetrical. The right kidney is smaller and sits lower than the larger left kidney to leave space for your liver.
  • DIY Kidney. Dutch doctor Willem Kolff made the first dialysis machine with a sausage casing, orange juice can, and a washing machine. The washing machine spun to filter the pumped-in blood.
  • Water in Moderation. Too much liquid can cause hyponatremia, a condition where too much water in the system dilutes sodium the kidneys can’t remove.
  • Swap It Out. The first successful kidney transplant was performed by Joseph E. Smith in Boston, Massachusetts in 1954.

Start Maintaining Your Kidney Health Today

A lifestyle focused on kidney health is good for total body health. A balanced diet combined with exercise is critical to maintain kidney health. And while you’re tending to the needs of your kidney, you’re also helping the other systems in your body. What’s good for the kidneys also helps the digestive system, heart, and immune system.

The human body is complex and integrated—with the kidneys playing a major role in supporting your overall wellness. Your kidneys are equally intricate and complex organs that help keep your body in balance. Making small steps to maintain a healthy blood pressure in the normal range can help your kidneys to function properly, too.

Your heart pumps. Your kidneys filter. Your stomach digests. Your brain runs the show. But what about your hard-working, multitasking liver? It doesn’t receive the respect or admiration it so rightly deserves. Learning facts about the liver is the best way to awaken appreciation for your most under-the-radar organ.

This list of 27 facts will finally shine a much-deserved spotlight on the underrated organ’s anatomy, function, and how to support liver health. At the end, you can school your friends and family with facts about the liver that goes beyond the basics to spread the liver love around.

Anatomy Facts About the Liver

  1. Skin wins the battle of size for organs overall. But your liver takes the title for largest internal organ—and, weighing in around three pounds, is second overall.
  2. You aren’t alone in having a liver. Living things with spinal cords (vertebrates) also have livers. All of them. It’s that important.
  3. The liver looks like it has a larger head section and a smaller tail. But it can be further divided into thousands of lobules—tiny segments with their own ducts.
  4. Your liver has the capacity to hold 10 percent of your body’s blood. It doesn’t always have that much, but it does go through a lot—handling about 1.5 liters every minute.
  5. The liver isn’t just an organ—it’s also a gland. That’s because it secretes bile into the intestines.
  6. As long as you have a quarter of your liver left, the organ can fully regenerate to original size and regain full function. This is more of an evolutionary necessity than a neat trick. And it’s the reason liver donors can give someone half their liver and survive.
  7. Too much fat is bad for your liver. But it’s normal for this important organ to be comprised of about 10 percent fat.

Liver Facts to Explain the Organ’s Many Important Jobs

  1. Speaking of fat, one of the hundreds of jobs the liver has is metabolizing fat. This is done through the bile produced in the liver.
  2. Your liver can make up to a liter of metabolism-inducing bile every day.
  3. Bile also plays a role in metabolizing your other macronutrients—proteins and carbohydrates. So, the liver’s bile production is key to breaking down a large swath of your diet and making sure it can be used to support your overall health.
  4. The liver is more than a production facility and metabolism force. It also provides a warehouse for a variety of important nutrients—including glycogen (stored glucose), iron, copper, and a variety of fat-soluble vitamins.
  5. What you put in your body is filtered by your liver. It takes out and deals with dietary nutrients, toxins, drugs, alcohol, and a few hormones.
  6. Besides filtering, the liver has many functions connected to blood. Your body’s ability to form blood clots—with the support of vitamin K—is aided by the bile produced in your liver. It also:
    • creates an important protein in blood serum (albumin)
    • pieces together a hormone involved in blood pressure regulation (angiotensinogen)
    • handles bilirubin from broken down hemoglobin
  1. Immunity is helped out by the liver. Your two types of immune protection—innate and adaptive—are both supported by processes in your second largest organ.
  2. Your liver acts as a switching station that determines whether the body’s nutrient intake—delivered through the portal vein—is stored, further processed, placed in a detoxification process, or sent out as waste.
  3. Detox is probably the first place your mind goes when you think of your liver. It deals with detoxifying the substances you take in with a two-phase approach. The first liver detoxification pathway (Phase I) neutralizes compounds, while Phase II deals with byproducts of the first phase and makes substances water soluble for removal.
  4. Glutathione is one of the most important antioxidants in your body. You synthesize it and can find glutathione throughout your body. But it’s up to 10 times more concentrated in the liver. That’s because it plays a role in Phase II detoxification.

Facts to Help You Maintain Your Liver Health

  1. If you can call organ meats popular (and that depends on your culture and preferences), liver would top the list. Edible animal livers are packed with protein, iron, and various vitamins.
  2. Surprise—what you eat has a lot of impact on the organ that deals with your dietary intake. One important aspect of maintaining liver health is eating enough fiber. It works to help out this powerful detox organ through weight-management support and maintaining a healthy gut microbiome.
  3. Even though fat is part of your liver’s composition, eating too many fatty foods can hamper the health of your body’s biggest detoxifying organ. Saturated fat is especially harmful, but omega-3 fatty acids and healthier options like olive oil are smart choices.
  4. That caffeine jumpstarting your day and keeping your going in the afternoon is processed in your liver. But caffeinated beverages—especially coffee and green tea—have been shown to have benefits that help support liver health.
  5. Weight management is important for overall health—and your liver is no different. Carrying extra weight strains the liver and can eventually impact function. Watching your diet and exercising regularly will help manage your weight and support your liver.
  6. Easing up on your sugar intake is an important step for managing your weight. And it’s especially impactful for your liver—mostly due to the ties your liver has to glucose storage. One step you can take is switching from sugary drinks to plain water. It will also help you maintain healthy hydration levels.
  7. A diet built on a broad foundation of fruits and vegetables is a must for optimal health. Along with an abundance of micronutrients you need for overall health, some plants provide liver-supporting benefits. Eat more broccoli, spinach, berries, grapefruit, and grapes to help maintain your liver health.
  8. Your liver is in charge of dealing with the alcohol you drink. While drinking in moderation is more easily tolerated, too many wild nights can stack up and start impacting the degree to which your liver does its many jobs.
  9. Medications have to be broken down by the liver so they can be effective. But mixing prescriptions, over-the-counter medicines, and even some supplements can cause issues for your liver. Make sure to follow usage instructions and tell your health-care providers and pharmacists all the supplements and medications you’re taking. They can help you avoid potentially harmful interactions.
  10. Protecting your liver means taking proper precautions around environmental toxins. Cleaners and other chemicals you inhale have to be processed and neutralized in the liver. That protection is part of your biggest detoxification organ’s job, but you can make it easier by wearing proper personal protective equipment—like a mask—when dealing with chemicals.

Share These Facts About the Liver

The liver isn’t such a strange, magical detoxifier now. You know more liver facts that shed light on all the important functions and ways to keep yourself healthy. Don’t keep all this liver information to yourself. Share it to help your friends become liver lovers, too.

The year is 1665. The Taj Mahal in India was completed 12 years ago. In a little over a year, Isaac Newton will witness an apple falling from a tree, sparking an idea. And somewhere in London, the architect and natural philosopher Robert Hooke places a thin slice of cork into the specimen holder of a microscope. When he looks through the eyepiece, he sees a strange structure.

“I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a honeycomb, but that the pores of it were not regular,” he writes. “These pores, or cells … were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this.”

Hooke has discovered the cell. Plant cells to be specific. He actually coins the term, writing that they remind him of the cells occupied by Christian monks in a monastery he once visited. These cells are dead though, and his microscope is not powerful enough to see inside the cell. It’s not until 13 years later that someone would see a living cell up close.

Using a more powerful microscope of his own design, Dutch businessman and scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek would first observe bacteria and protozoa. He called these single celled organisms animalcules, Latin for “little animals.”

Hooke is long gone now, buried somewhere in the City of London Cemetery. He took the first steps towards what is now refer to as cell theory. This is the understanding that every living organism on the planet is composed of one or more cells.

Cells are the integral unit of structure and function in all living organisms. Every cell that has ever existed came from pre-existing cells that have divided, and divided, and divided, all the way to the 37.2 trillion cells that make your body.

The Two Different Types of Cells

Cells can be split into two main types—prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. Those “little animals” that Leeuwenhoek witnessed were prokaryotic cells. Bacteria, and another family of cell called archaea, are classified as prokaryotic.

The cells that exist in plants and animals are called eukaryotes. This type can be either single-celled or multicellular.

Approaching the Cell

But what makes up a eukaryotic animal cell? If you could shrink down to the size of the cell, and even smaller, what would you see?

Imagine you’re getting smaller and smaller. The world around you gets larger and larger, eventually blurring out of view. As you shrink, you start to focus in on a group of structures, like the little cages that Hooke witnessed long ago.

Soon enough you come to one cell in particular. Now, some cells are more complex on the outside and have accessories other cells lack. Microvilli are one such feature.

Microvilli extend like fingers from the surface of the cell, and are important in the absorption of nutrients. They also greatly increase the surface area of the cell without affecting its overall size.

Cilia extend even further than microvilli, and can actually push different substances along the surface of the cell.

Then there is the flagellum, which is a thin, tail-like structure that can actually propel an entire cell, enabling it to swim!

The Plasma Membrane

All cells rely on the all-important plasma membrane. This acts like a fence, keeping the contents of the cell together while also letting food and nutrients pass through.

The plasma membrane is made up of a double layer of fatty acids called phospholipids. These fatty acid molecules have a head and a tail. The head is what is called ‘hydrophilic,’ meaning it’s attracted to water. The tail, meanwhile, is hydrophobic—repelled by water. This combination of head and tail is what makes the structure and function of the cell membrane possible.

As you get smaller, you pass through the plasma membrane, and journey into the cell. Briefly, you can see the double layer of phospholipids, like a zipper held fast by the chemical attractions of their hydrophobic tails.

Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton

Once fully inside the cell, you encounter a medium called the cytoplasm. It contains a substance rich in amino acids and potassium, called cytosol. This solution is also referred to as intracellular fluid.

You can also make out a network of what looks like webs or scaffolding. This is the cytoskeleton. It provides structural support and allows the movement of materials inside the cell. The cytoskeleton is made up of three different types of protein fibers called microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.

Microfilaments are the smallest of the three, made of twisted strands of proteins that can be pulled together to shorten the cell. This occurs often in muscle cells, and aids in their ability to contract.

Intermediate filaments are twisted strands of proteins that mainly provide framework for the cell and help hold it together.

Microtubules have a spiral shape. When put together, they form a hollow cylinder. These cylinders help maintain cell shape and move organelles (another name for cell parts) within the cell.

They form what is called the centrosome. The centrosome is made up of structures called centrioles which organize microtubules and provide an additional framework for the cell. They also aid in the separation process during cell division.

Between the cytoplasm and the cytoskeleton, you can see the primary support framework of the cell. You can also see several strange-looking structures. These are the organelles. These important cell parts all have specific functions they carry out.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum

The first structure you can see looks like a collection of several long, thin caverns. These are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). There two different types of ERs.

The first is the rough ER, which extends from the nucleus and has ribosomes attached to the outside of its membrane, giving it a rough appearance. These ribosomes produce what are called polypeptide chains. That’s just a fancy way to say proteins. The proteins created by ribosomes are released into the ER, where they are processed and prepared for release into the cell. When released, the proteins are transported inside enclosed membrane sacks called transport vesicles that pinch off from the rough ER.

It’s important to note that ribosomes are not organelles. They are vital to cells, though. That’s because they’re the protein-producing factories. They can either be floating in cytosol en route to somewhere else in the cell, or attached to the rough ER. Ribosomes are comprised of two components called the small and large subunits. The small subunits read the ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain instructions on how to assemble the amino acids into polypeptide chains. The large subunit does the heavy lifting of actually assembling the polypeptide chains.

Next you see the smooth ER. This is another organelle with a membrane, but it doesn’t have ribosomes, hence the “smooth” moniker. The smooth ER contains enzymes that alter polypeptides, produce lipids and carbohydrates, and destroy toxins. Most of the lipids and cholesterol that make up cell membranes are made in the smooth ER.

The Golgi Apparatus

Shifting your focus, you encounter the Golgi apparatus, definitely the coolest name of all the organelles. The Golgi apparatus is another membranous organelle that modifies, packages, and stores proteins.

It looks like a group of larger and larger cisterns expanding out from its center. Transport vesicles deliver proteins to the Golgi apparatus from the ER. As the proteins move throughout the cisterns of the Golgi, they are modified. This can happen by adding or rearranging molecules with different enzymes. Sometimes carbohydrates are added to form what are called glycoproteins.

After moving through the last cistern, proteins are cordoned off in a different vesicle called the secretory vesicle. Most of these proteins are directed toward the plasma membrane. They either become part of the membrane, or are released outside of the cell.


The Golgi is fundamental in the production of lysosomes. These are vesicles that pinch off from the Golgi apparatus and function as the garbage trucks of the cell. Lysosomes are enclosed by a membrane and contain digestive enzymes that pick up cellular waste or defective organelles to be recycled or converted to waste. They are also vital in protecting the cell from bacteria and viruses.


Passing out of the Golgi apparatus, you come across the proteasomes. These organelles manage the existing proteins in the cell. They are found throughout the cytoplasm. Proteasomes break down abnormal or misfolded proteins and normal proteins the cell doesn’t need anymore.

Another protein called ubiquitin is placed on the proteins marked for recycling by enzymes in the cytoplasm. The targeted proteins are then pulled into the proteasomes and broken down by a process called proteolysis. In this process, the peptide bonds of the proteins are broken. The leftover peptide chains and amino acids are then released into the cell to be recycled.


Moving on, you come across a curious structure called a peroxisome. While not technically an organelle, and not technically an enzyme, peroxisomes can best be described as protein complexes.

They have a membrane, and are also pinched off from the ER. Peroxisomes are responsible for breaking down long-chain fatty acids and amino acids. In this process, they can produce the byproduct hydrogen peroxide, which can be dangerous to the cell because it can react with many substances. Because of this, peroxisomes also carry an enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Talk about cleaning up after yourself!


Once past the peroxisomes, you spot a baked-bean-shaped organelle called a mitochondrion (when there are many, they’re called mitochondria). These are the hyper-efficient power plants of the cell. They take food particles brought into the cell and convert it to a molecule called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. This is known as the “currency” of the cell. ATP is capable of storing and transferring energy to other parts of the cell.

Mitochondria have both an inner and outer membrane, and their numbers can vary depending on the type of cell. Typically, the more active a cell is, the more mitochondrion it will contain. Liver cells, for example, contain thousands of mitochondria. In the cells that make up your muscles, aerobic activity can actually increase the number of mitochondria. No wonder you have more energy when you exercise frequently.

The Nucleus

Finally, you arrive at the nucleus. The largest of all the structures in the cell, the nucleus has two membranes forming what is called the nuclear envelope.

Along with small pores on the surface of the membrane, this envelope encloses the nucleoplasm. While the nuclear envelope functions as a wall, the pores act as a gate that lets certain molecules in and out of the nucleus. Nucleoplasm is similar to the cytoplasm of the cell. It is a syrupy substance that suspends the structures contained within the nuclear membrane.

Suspended in the nucleoplasm is the nucleolus. It is comprised of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), RNA, and protein. The nucleolus is the birthplace of ribosomes, which, remember, make proteins vital to the functioning of healthy cells.

As you get smaller, you can start to make out the twisted double-helix structure of the cell’s DNA. You reach out, trying to touch it, closer and closer, smaller and smaller. And finally, you make contact. In a flash, you return to your previous size, not sure whether or not you actually touched what you were reaching for.

Somewhere in the grassy fields of the City of London cemetery, the first light of a brand-new day strikes a freshly germinated seed of grass. The cells of that seed, enriched by the good earth and sun, divide and divide, sending forth a tiny shoot into the cool morning air.

You use your teeth every day, but you might not know much about their anatomy. It’s time to start asking questions and learning more about them. Maybe “what are teeth made of?” has popped into your mind before. Or you’ve wondered from time to time: are your teeth bones?

It’s your lucky day.

You’ve found 24 bite-sized questions and answers to help you better understand your teeth. From baby teeth to teeth grinding, plaque, and flossing, this list has got it all. Study up so you can display your knowledge the next time you’re at the dentist.

  1. What Keeps Your Teeth in Place?

Your teeth are anchored into two of the bones of your skull. The upper teeth are situated in a bone called the maxilla that forms the upper jaw. And the mandible (jawbone) is the bone that houses your lower teeth.

The mandible and maxilla are the two bones that make up your jaw. They are connected on the right and left sides of your skull. Your jawbone is the strongest in your skull and the only one that can move. And that comes in handy when you bite and chew your food.

  1. How Many Teeth Do You Have?

Ancient philosophers like Aristotle once thought men and women didn’t have the same number of teeth. But we know better now. A full set of adult teeth for women and men is 32. You can count them yourself with your tongue.

Teeth are organized in pairs according to their shape. You have one tooth from the pair on each side of your mouth. Look in a mirror and see for yourself. Divide your mouth in half vertically to see that each side is virtually symmetrical.

  1. What is Your Tooth’s Crown? (Not the One from the Dentists, Either)

To answer this question, let’s breakdown the anatomy of a tooth.

Teeth are like icebergs. The iceberg appears to be a small chunk of ice floating in the water. When really, it’s like an ice mountain barely peeking up out of the ocean. So it is with your teeth. They exist above and below the surface of your gums. The shiny, white portion you can see when you open your mouth is called the crown.

This part of the tooth comes in contact with your food, drink, and saliva. It is the tough exterior that protects the whole tooth. So, a tooth’s crown is covered in a hard substance called enamel. Underneath the enamel is a layer of hard tissue called dentin.

  1. What is Enamel?

Until now, you probably thought that bone was the toughest tissue in your body.


That award goes to enamel. The hard, white material that surrounds the crown of your teeth takes the title.

Enamel is found on the outside of the tooth and made primarily of calcium phosphate. This mineral makes enamel incredibly strong. So, it can defend the softer, more sensitive layers of the tooth—dentin, pulp, nerves, and blood vessels. It also protects your teeth from the wear-and-tear of daily use.

  1. Do Teeth Have Roots?

They sure do. Below the hard crown is the tooth’s root. It’s tucked away underneath the gum line and tethered to the jawbone by connective tissue called the periodontal ligament.

Most of the root is made of dentin, which forms canals. They hold a living tissue called pulp that’s full of blood vessels and nerves that run through the root of the tooth and into the jawbone.

  1. Can Teeth Feel Sensations?

You might have noticed your teeth feeling sensitive to hot or cold temperatures. This can happen if the root of a tooth is exposed above the gum line, or if enamel wears down. When the dentin that makes up the root is uncovered, the nerves inside can be stimulated by the temperature of the food and drink in your mouth.

The sensations of hot and cold are transmitted through the nerves in the exposed dentin to the brain. Your brain interprets these signals as pain.

This is another reason enamel is so important. It acts like an insulator that shields teeth from extremely hot and cold temperatures. Enamel protects the sensitive nerves in dentin from painful stimulation.

  1. Why Do Teeth Come in Different Shapes?

Take one look at your smile and you’ll know your teeth don’t all look the same. In fact, your teeth vary widely in their shape and size.

While none of the teeth in your mouth are identical, they can be classified by their overall shape. An adult set of teeth has eight incisors, four canines, eight premolars, and 12 molars.

Beginning in the middle and branching out left and right are your incisors. These big front teeth are sharp like a knife. Next to the incisors are the canine teeth. They have a distinctive point called a cusp. They resemble the pointed teeth in dogs.

The next teeth in line are called the premolars. These teeth have two cusps and are sometimes referred to as bicuspids. Finally, the last class of teeth are the molars. They’re large and flat.

  1. What Do the Different Kinds of Teeth Do?

The different shape of each tooth helps it perform a specialized function while you chew your food.

Incisors are great at cutting into and holding chunks of food, like when you bite into an apple. Your incisors can also help you sense the texture of your food.

Canine teeth tear your food into smaller, more manageable pieces. You can put your canines to work by eating a piece of thick protein, like grilled chicken.

The premolars are between canines and molar in shape. Premolars help cut and tear food—much like the canine teeth do.

Molars are used for grinding food. As you chew, pieces of food are moved further back into your mouth where they’re ground up by your molars. Molars help break food into pieces you can swallow safely.

  1. What are Wisdom Teeth?

You have four wisdom teeth, which are also called third molars. They are shaped just like molars and perform the same tasks while you chew. But for some people, wisdom teeth need to be removed.

In your late teens and early twenties, wisdom teeth arrive. These are the last of your permanent teeth to erupt (another word for your teeth coming in). When wisdom teeth come to the surface, they can push against the other teeth, causing crowding and discomfort. They can even knock your other teeth out of alignment.

If your dentist believes your wisdom teeth will cause a problem, they’re often surgically removed. This procedure usually happens before the teeth erupt. Should you have your wisdom teeth removed, the number of permanent teeth in your mouth drops from 32 to 28. Don’t worry, you will get along just fine without your wisdom teeth. You might even be more comfortable.

  1. If Your Teeth are so Strong, How Can They Get Chipped?

The material that makes up most of your tooth enamel is called calcium phosphate. This mineral compound is also found in bones. It contributes to the white color of your teeth. And it’s incredibly strong and durable. But it isn’t indestructible.

Your teeth can get injured just like the rest of your body. If your tooth gets chipped or cracked, a dentist can repair the damage. But it will not heal on its own.

  1. Are Your Teeth Bones?

Even though they look a lot alike, teeth are not bones. And, surprisingly, they’re actually very different. Here’s how:

  • Teeth are stronger than bone. As you know from above, enamel is the strongest tissue in your body.
  • Bones are protected by layers of muscle and skin. Your teeth are covered only by your lips.
  • Even though teeth are made of tougher material than bones, your bones can regenerate used and damaged tissue. When it comes to enamel, once it is gone it doesn’t come back.
  • Both bones and teeth have blood vessels and nerves inside them. But unlike teeth, bones actually produce new blood cells in their bone marrow. Teeth have an inner layer similar to marrow. This is the pulp layer that is protected by tooth enamel.
  1. What is the Color of a Healthy Tooth?

Healthy teeth are bright and white. Their color comes from the calcium phosphate in enamel. The tips and edges of teeth may appear translucent or blue-tinted. This is perfectly normal.

Yellowing of teeth can indicate enamel loss. Dentin, the layer underneath enamel, is yellow. When enamel wears down and dentin is exposed, the tooth can become discolored and appear yellow.

Fortifying your enamel with calcium rich foods—like milk, yogurt, almonds, and edamame—can help restore its whiteness. You can also drink fluoridated water to support the health of your enamel. Fluoride reinforces enamel and keep the yellow dentin from being exposed.

  1. How Many Teeth Do Children Have?

Little children have 20 primary (or baby) teeth. They are eight incisors, four canines, and eight molars. These teeth are shed later to make room for larger, permanent teeth. By age three, most children have each of their primary teeth.

Baby teeth are made of the same materials as permanent teeth. Enamel covers the crown, and the root is made of dentin and pulp. Primary teeth are smaller and more spaced out than permanent teeth. This is because the bones of the face and jaw grow as the child gets older, causing teeth to spread out.

  1. When Do Teeth Start Developing?

Before you were born, your teeth were forming. Between the third and fourth month of pregnancy, cells called ameloblasts generate the enamel that forms teeth. This happens around the tooth bud (the first stage of tooth development). These buds stay below the surface of the gums until fully formed—anywhere from six months to a year after birth.

  1. Why Do Teeth Fall Out?

As a child, your teeth fall out so larger, adult teeth can take their place. This is a natural and healthy part of the lifecycle of your teeth. Most primary teeth will fall out by age 12.

Tooth loss happens when the roots of primary teeth dissolve in preparation for the arrival of permanent teeth. This process can take several weeks, and it’s best to let teeth fall out on their own. After a primary tooth is out, a new permanent tooth will erupt in the same spot.

  1. What are Cavities?

Just like their name implies, cavities are tiny holes in the enamel and dentin layers of teeth. Cavities are the result of tooth decay, which happens when bacteria invade broken or damaged teeth.

Simple sugars are the main culprits behind cavities. Soda, juice, candy, and similar foods can linger on teeth. The bacteria in your mouth can turn these simple carbs into acids that erode the enamel on your teeth. And a cavity is born.

You might notice that you have a cavity on your own. Many people experience toothache and discomfort when they have a cavity. Your tooth might be especially sensitive to temperature or ache when you eat something sweet.

Sometimes it takes a trip to the dentist to find a cavity. With x-ray imaging the dentist can see cavities between your teeth. They can also use dental equipment to look for soft spots and holes on the tooth’s surface.

Fortunately, dentists can fix cavities with a dental filling. First, the dentist removes the decayed portion of tooth with a small drill. Then they replace the missing part of the tooth with a safe material. Fillings can be made of gold, silver, porcelain, or a composite resin. After a filling, your tooth will feel much better.

  1. What is Plaque?

If your teeth feel fuzzy after eating, plaque is to blame. When you eat sugary foods, the bacteria in your mouth cling to your teeth and feast on the simple carbohydrates. These bacteria can form a sticky film on the surface of your teeth called plaque.

You can easily remove plaque. Brushing your teeth is the best way to get rid of plaque. Do it twice a day for best results. Rinse your mouth with anti-bacterial mouth wash to keep the number of bacteria in your mouth under control. And consider an oral probiotic to help support a healthy bacteria balance.

  1. What is Tartar?

Plaque that stays on teeth can harden into tartar—a tough, mineralized substance. When tartar is present, cavities can soon follow. And tartar makes it difficult to brush properly. It requires a professional dental cleaning to remove.

Plaque generally forms above the gum line, but tartar can build up above and below the gums. This can cause problems for the dentin and bone underneath your gums. That’s why it is so important to take care of your teeth to avoid tartar build up.

You can protect your teeth from tartar by brushing and flossing daily and using mouthwash. Another great way to keep tartar at bay is fortifying your enamel with fluoride. This mineral is found in most municipal water systems. It strengthens enamel and helps repair damage caused by the bacteria and acids in your mouth.

  1. Why Should You Brush Your Teeth?

For thousands of years people have been brushing their teeth. Ancient Egyptians in 5,000 B.C. used frayed twigs and egg shells to polish their teeth. Now toothbrushes with soft bristles clear away the food left behind after a meal.

Brushing your teeth is the best way to keep cavities away. You should brush your teeth twice a day with a pea-sized amount of toothpaste. Be gentle when you brush. Scrubbing hard with a toothbrush can irritate the gums and expose the sensitive dentin underneath.

Two minutes is the perfect amount of brushing time. Keep a timer or clock in your bathroom to help measure how long you brush. Switch sides often and cover the front and back of each row of teeth.

Change your toothbrush when it wears out. Every three to four months is recommended. Rinse your toothbrush with hot water after each use. And get a new toothbrush after you’ve been sick.

  1. Is Flossing Important?

Absolutely! Brushing cares for the parts you can see. But you need to clean between your teeth, too. Using dental floss loosens up food and plaque. It keeps tartar from building up in hard-to-reach areas. Flossing also cleans the parts of your teeth hidden below your gum line.

Floss every day to keep the areas between your teeth healthy and clean.

  1. How Can You Help Avoid Tooth Decay?

Brushing and flossing are the best ways to keep your teeth healthy and your enamel in good shape. But your diet can play an important role in helping avoid tooth decay.

Steer clear of soda, juice, and other sugary drinks. These are the most harmful. So, drink water instead. Simple carbohydrates and starchy foods should be limited. When you want something sweet, skip the candy. Look to fruits for their natural sweetness as an alternative. Their high fiber content stimulates saliva production and washes sugar off your teeth. Acidic foods—like citrus fruits—can erode enamel over time, so make sure to drink plenty of plain water when consuming them.

Foods rich in calcium like milk, yogurt, and cruciferous vegetables are great for your teeth. Celery and other crunchy vegetables help clean your teeth of debris. And follow the same advice for your teeth as you do for your waistline. That means choosing whole foods and nutritious meals over simple, sugary snacks.

  1. What is Bruxism?

Part of caring for your teeth is managing stress. Stress might tense you up and make you clench your fists. Some people also clench their jaw. This can lead to a condition called bruxism, or teeth grinding.

Bruxism can happen during sleep, so people who grind their teeth are often unaware of it. But grinding can lead to excessive wear on the flat portions of your teeth. It can also cause jaw soreness and headaches.

Your dentist can tell you if you grind your teeth. They might recommend wearing a mouthguard at night to keep your teeth from grinding together.

But there are other ways to fight bruxism. Try deep breathing exercises before bed. Hold a warm washcloth on your cheek just below the ear to help relax the muscles in your face and jaw. Place the tip of your tongue between your front teeth to open and relax your jaw.

If you’re stressed, open up to someone. Sharing your thoughts and feelings with a trusted friend or mental health professional can help manage your stress or anxiety. You might notice you sleep better and stop grinding your teeth.

  1. Can Your Teeth Give You Bad Breath?

Poor oral hygiene is usually the root of bad breath. When you skip brushing or flossing, the bacteria in your mouth go to town on the food lingering on your teeth. The breakdown of sugars and starches by bacteria creates some foul-smelling odors.

Sometimes the food you eat is the source of your stinky breath. Garlic and onions are notorious for leaving bad breath behind. Spicy foods can also share the blame.

Whether your bad breath is caused by bacteria or the food you ate, the best way to eliminate it is brushing and flossing. Brush twice a day to keep your breath fresh. If you eat a particularly pungent meal, gently clean your teeth afterward, too.

  1. Are Your Teeth Unique?

It may come as a surprise, but just like your DNA and fingerprints, your teeth are unique. No one has the same teeth you do. Their shape, size, and placement vary from person to person. Not even identical twins have the same set of teeth!

Keep Your Teeth Bright and Gleaming

Show your teeth some respect by making sure they’re in good shape. Keep them healthy by taking proper care of them. Brush and floss daily. Avoid sugary foods that erode your enamel. And visit the dentist regularly.

Smile, because there aren’t any other teeth in the world like yours.

About the Author

Sydney Sprouse is a freelance science writer based out of Forest Grove, Oregon. She holds a bachelor of science in human biology from Utah State University, where she worked as an undergraduate researcher and writing fellow. Sydney is a lifelong student of science and makes it her goal to translate current scientific research as effectively as possible. She writes with particular interest in human biology, health, and nutrition.