friends eating lunch

friends eating lunch

You’re so unique that it was a one in 400 trillion chance that you turned out the way you did. So, to say the odds that any two people are identical is astronomical. What are the chances, then, that you would need the exact same nutritional recommendations?

Not good, which explains why the one-size-fits-all days of nutritional guidelines are fading. More and more researchers at the cutting edge are pushing for more specificity. That’s why you now see life-stage-specific guidelines. And more personalized health recommendations—the ultimate goal being the right dose of the right nutrients for each individual—are the next giant leap.

That’s why a new study published in Nutrients is so exciting. The study’s research pushes the forefront of nutritional science—getting the world closer to more personalized nutrition. Researchers did this by identifying gender- and age-specific differences in the association between certain nutrients and healthy, normal blood lipid levels. And that’s a part of the puzzle for showing the necessity of personalized nutrition in maintaining your health.

The Basics: What the Study Says

Nutritional researchers dug into the data from a large, long-term, survey study about health and nutrition. Their novel analysis broke down the effects of nutrients on blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides, which play a big part of heart health) levels by gender and age.

Doing this provided evidence that food (and the nutrients in it) affects men and women of different ages in unique ways when it comes to blood lipid levels. Most research talked about these links for all adults. But this deeper dive helps push forward the understanding of one aspect of health—blood lipids and, ultimately, heart health.

This study’s approach and results make all the difference for the push for more personalized health recommendations. And what were the results about nutrient levels and blood lipids?

The researchers were able to show distinct groups had different interactions between vitamins, minerals, and levels of triglycerides and both types of cholesterol—LDL the “bad” cholesterol and HDL the “good” cholesterol. That means women of childbearing age from the study showed ties to healthy, normal lipid levels from different nutrients than, say, men 35-64.

In fact, the research is the first to show a gender-specific link between healthy, normal cholesterol and at least one essential nutrient.

What it Means to You

Healthy, normal blood lipid levels are key to maintaining heart health. You know how important your heart is. So, protecting its health, at every age, is a focus of dietary and health guidelines.

The more specific recommendations that could eventually grow out of this research could make more personalized nutritional suggestions for heart-health maintenance possible. And it’s better to know more about the nutrients you need to maintain already healthy, normal levels of blood lipids and support your heart health.

This research represents another step forward in the history of nutritional scientific innovation. One that gets us closer to personalized nutrition that can help each person get exact what they need.

The Scientific Method – Dive into the Specifics

The scientists analyzed dietary data taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES) 2001-2013. Included in the study were 6,127 adult males and 6,157 adult, non-pregnant females. First, they broke out nutrient and blood lipid interaction by gender. Then separated the data further by age.

That specificity helped researches uncover their novel results. It’s why this study provides evidence that men and women of varying ages may process food differently. And that results in varying responses to nutritional intake.

But this is just the start. More studies are needed to improve the understanding of how specific nutrients work differently in different subsets of the population. Knowledge generated from this kind of research could lead to more personalized and effective approaches to improving health outcomes.

See the full study here:

Jin H, Nicodemus-Johnson J. Gender and Age Stratified Analyses of Nutrient and Dietary Pattern Associations with Circulating Lipid Levels Identify Novel Gender and Age-Specific Correlations. Nutrients. 2018 Nov 14;10(11).

Take a deep breath and get ready to turn the page. It doesn’t matter whether it’s the start of a new year or just time for a change. Whatever the last period of your life represented, now is the time to plan ahead and shift your energy in a new, better direction. Forget what’s bogging you down and focus on simplifying so you get down to the important things in life. That starts with decluttering. Rid yourself of unnecessary worries mentally, while also decluttering your physical spaces.

Decluttering can go deeper than just cleaning or organizing, too. It’s a chance to focus on choosing what’s really needed and what’s not. Making these decisions is paramount. That’s because it’s never a bad time to hit the reset button. You just have to be willing to take the required steps to do so. Whether that’s throwing away clothes that have sat in your closet for too many years, or even taking a break from continuously scrolling social media. Everybody needs a little push when searching for ways to declutter physically and mentally.

If you’re overwhelmed with everyday life, or have a hard time taking a break for yourself, you’ve come to the right place. With a little help from the list below, you can find what’s most important and methodically trim everything else. And whittling your life down to the essentials can help you focus and feel less overwhelmed.

Follow this rundown to identify issues, digesting what’s wrong, and find different decluttering methods and set yourself up for future success.

Item 1. Identifying the Clutter in Your Life

Clutter is everywhere. In your house. In your head. On your phone.

It’s nearly impossible to escape from your busy life these days. And the more you take on, the more clutter creeps in. Disorder takes you away from everything else on your to-do list. It preoccupies you with routine tasks rather than focusing on truly experiencing your life and planning for a better future.

To tackle the clutter, first you need to identify what truly has sentimental value, what you cannot live without. So, you have to be honest with yourself. Sometimes brutally so. Look closely at that old gift on your desk. Forget about what it might’ve cost a friend five years ago and ask what it means to you now. Think about the decorations you’ve been keeping in the closet just in case. Will you ever use them?

List what’s really important in your life and make those your categories to label items. Identify what fits in each category. And as for everything else? If it doesn’t fit in a category, serves no proper function, or has no emotional importance, chuck it. If you have too many of the same sort of item, get rid of the extras. Decluttering your life can help you take control.

Item 2: Focus on Decluttering One Spot at a Time

It’s easier to target a certain spot in your house when starting a serious clutter detox. Otherwise, the task can feel too big to tackle. Remember, little bites will still get the task done. So, make a game plan—breaking the task into parts will help you—and follow it as closely as possible.

Start with an easy spot. Getting that first decluttering win will give you momentum. The desk in your home might be the easiest spot to target. That’s where work and life clutter seems to collide most often. But it’s also small, contained, and can count as impacting two aspects of life. First, find defined areas for work and home. One side of your desk could be business-specific: notes, files, projects, etc. The other can be where you store day-to-day items like headphones,  checkbooks, and more. (Don’t forget to weigh what’s important and what’s just clutter.)

Next, open the fridge and toss out anything that looks bad or smells worse. If you haven’t used something but need to, plan a meal around the foods or condiments in your fridge that are nearing their end. You’ll feel better than just dunking it in the trash. Same goes with the freezer. If you get a little angry with yourself every time you open it up, commit to making the best possible meal with what’s packing the freezer.

Now you have momentum and can start tackling the bigger areas of your house. Work your way up to what is likely the most arduous task—tackling your sleeping quarters head-on.

Your bedroom can be a sanctuary for self-care and a place to get good sleep. But it probably could use some decluttering.

Luckily, there’s a four-container method you can use. Make four piles: trash, give away/sell, storage, and put away. By containing the clutter in specific categories, you’re better able to distance yourself from what is an absolute must and what no longer qualifies. Anything you don’t need or want, toss it in the trash or give-away pile. If something is broken and doesn’t need fixing, toss it. For necessary, important items, place them in storage or just put them in their proper place.

And the four-container method isn’t just for the bedroom. It can be applied to any room in your house.

One more tip: If you’re having a hard time parting with some things, think of the decluttering like this: you’re making room for the things that matter.

Item 3. Decluttering Your Digital Spaces

If you can’t find that photo of an old vacation you want to share on social media, consider this: Compartmentalizing and decluttering your life digitally might be just as important as in real life.

Now that everyone is glued to screens nearly every day, your digital life should be as comfortable and clutter-free as your physical one. Start with your phone.

Better organize your apps. Putting them in folders or creating some kind of order helps a lot. That way, the next time you really need your travel app you can scroll right to it.

If you’re on your desktop or laptop, trash files that aren’t useful anymore. And organize those that remain. Accessing your own vital information should be easy—instead of a chore. Just like you can do on your phone, organize everything into folders on your desktop to avoid searching for documents with names you can’t exactly remember.

And if you’re really looking to trim down the digital clutter, consider the amount of devices you have. Do you really need a laptop, smartphone, and a tablet? You can also put respective time blocks on each, making sure that when your allotted time on each is reached, you put it down.

Item 4. Be Screen Savvy for Some Mental Decluttering

There is more clutter in life than too many clothes or cramped desk space. One of the most important of all detoxes could be one from the world you live through your smartphone. All the stimuli from social media and other screen-based time drains.

New operating systems now update you weekly about how much screen time you’re averaging a day. If you need another reminder that your life is dominated by screens, take a look. The reports might help shape your behaviors. Depending on what you see, you might want to declutter your mental state by cutting out some screen time.

Studies show social media detoxes might be worth it because they can help improve your overall mood. It might also help you feel less competitive with strangers that always seem to be living their best life. You can also conquer your FOMO (fear of missing out). This type of detox (even if it’s brief) can slow the digital stimuli to help you live more in the present and realize that life before social media was just as rewarding.

Cutting yourself off from social media altogether might not work for you. There are plenty of good things about social media (like the Ask the Scientists Facebook page!). But placing limits can help you declutter your mind and your life. And the free time and mental energy you obtain can be put to good use in different ways that you might’ve forgotten about since the apps have taken over.

Item No. 5 Decluttering Your Schedule

Finding room for yourself in the midst of your to-do list is another key decluttering task. The good thing is, you have some control to prioritize your schedule the way you want.

But sometimes that means skipping events—especially those you know will be disappointing or underwhelming. Saying no isn’t bad. So, rid yourself of that stigma.

And remember, it’s OK to put yourself first, too. There’s nothing wrong with rolling with an urge to see a movie, take a walk, or sit in a coffee shop reading a book. You don’t always have to be making others happy. Declutter your schedule so you have time to enjoy yourself.

Item No. 6 Exhausted? Remember Why You’re Decluttering

Mental clutter so often generates stress, which has ties to several negative effects on your mind and body. But physical clutter can also be stressful.

Researchers discovered a direct correlation between clutter and stress. They explored the relationship between 32 families and objects in their homes. Turns out, clutter has a serious effect on mood and overall self-esteem. So, more stuff, more dishes, and more clutter equals rising anxiety.

Physical clutter has damaging potential, too. It can be a serious fire and tripping hazard in your home. Physical clutter might also be a resting place for dust, mold, and animal dander. All of these can be harmful to those who suffer from allergies and asthma.

There’s No Better Time Than Now to Declutter

You have so many different ways to declutter. Embrace the diverse options for ridding yourself of things you don’t need or harmful habits. There is nothing like a fresh start. So, instead of putting things off, instead of ignoring it all over again, get to work.

Do your best to simplify and rid yourself of the trinkets you don’t use. Give away the clothes you don’t wear. Cut down your digital stimuli by limiting screen time.

The clutter doesn’t have to stress you out. So, take a breather. Get to work and see just how much you can accomplish when you take a step back and realize how freeing decluttering your life can be.

Everything is fast. Now life needs to be 5G, supercharged, and express. But your meals shouldn’t be a sprint. In fact, slower eating might actually crank up your weight-management efforts.

Try to think about the last time it took you 20 minutes or more to eat a meal. If it wasn’t recently, you may be scarfing your food down too fast. That’s because the 20 minute mark is important.

Science shows that it takes 20 minutes for your brain to get the message you’re full. Eating slower can help you feel full sooner. This eliminates the unintended, extra calories consumed after you’re actually full—but don’t know it.

So, instead of spending a lot of time thinking about the right mix of macronutrients or counting calories, just take more time to eat. This simple approach is just one of your options, obviously. Dieters use hundreds of different methods to try and reduce food intake. But eating slower might be worth trying on its own, or in combination with the diet of your choice.

Wondering if eating slower can really help you manage your weight? You aren’t alone. Researchers around the world have taken quite an interest in the topic of slower eating. Let’s see what they’ve found.

And the Slower Eating Study Says …

A lot of promising results have come out of all the research on eating slower and weight management. Some research has shown eating slower can help reduce food intake, which is great for weight-management.

You don’t have to seek out all the research yourself. A meta-analysis (a study of studies) published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2014 did it for you. The study analyzed differences in eating rate and its influence on energy intake and hunger.

Researchers analyzed and combined the evidence from 22 studies. They calculated the average differences in food intake between slow and fast eating, and the possible differences in hunger.

The combined evidence showed that eating slower is associated with less calorie consumption than a faster eating rate. This was true regardless of the type of manipulation used to alter the eating rate. But how fast eating was done did not have an impact on hunger.

This review supports the idea that the rate of eating does affect energy intake. Eating slower will help reduce food intake and limit excess consumption, regardless of the method used to slow down eating rate. You’ll see some of those methods a little bit later.

How Does Eating Slower Make You Lose Weight?

Research on pace of eating has found correlations between lower body mass indexes and slower eating. That’s exciting. But why does it happen?

The lower calorie consumption for slower eaters is obviously a key part. Eating fewer calories is probably the most well-established weight-management advice. And you’ve already seen how eating slower ties to decreased caloric intake.

You eat slower, you tend to eat less. That’s mostly because you feel full before you overeat. Go back to the fun fact from earlier in the story. It takes 20 minutes for your brain to figure out if you’re full or how full you really are. So, if you eat a meal’s worth of food in 10 minutes and keep going for another five minutes, then you took in a lot of extra calories.

But research suggests the links between eating slower and weight go deeper than the simple math of calories.

The habit of inhaling food at a fast pace has established ties to metabolic issues. This revolves around how fast eaters’ bodies react to food—including glucose tolerance issues and insulin resistance. These connections aren’t surprising. Maintaining your metabolic health and staying at a healthy weight go hand in hand.

And eating slower could help you keep your metabolism and fat burning churning normally, as well as help you eat fewer overall calories. That’s a good combination for weight management. As a bonus, a study in Japan found that eating slower helps you better digest your food.

The Right Pace to Feed Your Face

There’s been far more studies on the reasons to eat slower than on the pace that’s right for weight management. It’s not easy to figure out how to categorize your eating—too fast, too slow, just right.

One study from the University of Rhode Island introduced numbers into the conversation about pace of eating:

  • Fast eating: about 3.1 ounces of food per minute
  • Medium eating: about 2.5 ounces per minute
  • Slow eating: about 2 ounces per minute

The numbers are helpful. But you don’t have to weigh everything you eat and break it down into two-ounce segments. There are easier ways to figure out the right pace to slow the flow of food into your stomach.

The simplest solution—use chewing as your pacing mechanism.

The more you chew, the slower you’ll eat. Counting the number of chews per bite, and aiming for 15-20, will help you hit the sweet spot for eating slower.

You can also time your chewing. One study found that 30 seconds of chewing helped study participants eat half as much candy as they would have when chewing normally.

No matter how you find the right pace for you, remember the 20-minute magic number. Eat at a leisurely pace to stretch the meal out enough for your brain to catch up to your mouth.

How to Eat Slower

Pacing yourself is good advice. But it’s kind of vague, right? There has to be a few practical pointers to achieve the right pace.

Actually, there is. You’re about to read six tips for eating slower. They can help you use slower eating to manage your weight. But they might even help your digestion and bring more enjoyment to your meals.

  1. Chew with purpose. You read about chewing in the pacing section above. But it’s worth repeating: chewing each bite more, and doing it slowly, helps properly adjust your pace. Try chewing each bite at least 20 times. You’ll slow yourself down and prepare your food better for digestion. If you’d rather time your chewing than count each chomp, go for 15 seconds or more.
  2. Take smaller bites. Chewing slow is great. But if you eat your meal in seven or eight huge chunks, your pace will still be too fast. Reducing the size of your bites, combined with purposeful chewing, helps you eat slower.
  3. Engage your senses. Taste is the sense most associated with food. But taking time to really enjoy how your food looks, and paying attention to texture (feeling) can also help slow eating. The most important might be smelling, though. Taste and smell are companions. Getting a good whiff, and enjoying the aromas will enhance your eating experience and throttle back your speedy eating.
  4. Break between bites. Intentionally pausing after each bite slows the speed of your meals. Do this by putting down your fork or spoon between bites—or setting down the food if it’s handheld.
  5. Listen to your body. Hunger is physical. You can feel it. There are signs when you need food, and different ones when you’ve had enough. Take time to check in with what your body is saying. And don’t disregard the signs because there’s more on your plate.
  6. Change your food mindset. Food is many things. At its most basic, it’s fuel. But food is also emotion and family and pleasure and intellectual stimulation and much more. So, don’t just treat food like the gas you dump in your car quickly so you can race down the road. Focus on each bite. Savor it. Discuss it. And really embrace and enjoy the full experience of eating.

Two-days’ worth of dirty dishes sitting in the sink. That stack of mail that’s been “on its way” to the post office for a month. And a nail-biting habit you thought you’d kicked is rearing its ugly head. Sound familiar?

You’re not the only one with a to-do list and no idea about where to find the motivation to start. But deep within you is the power to set goals and accomplish them. And you can unlock it with the science of self-motivation.

This intro course will provide you with the tools you need to get motivated to complete tasks and learn new things. Tapping into self-motivation is a talent in constant need of refining. So, get in the zone and learn how to get motivated—and stay that way.

What is Motivation?

Simply put, motivation is desire that focuses your behavior on a goal. It has roots in needs and wants, so it compels you to provide for your family and drives you towards personal improvement. And there are two main forces of motivation—external and intrinsic.

External motivation arises from factors outside of yourself. Money is a prime example of an external motivator because it’s necessary to buy food and have a place to live. External motivators can be thought of as rewards, too. A trophy, medal, or ribbon for competing in an athletic event. A performance bonus at work. Praise from your family members after you prepare a delicious meal. Each of these rewards are considered external motivators.

No surprise, intrinsic motivation comes from within. Curiosity, an interest in a particular topic, and desire to improve a talent or skill are intrinsic motivations. These types of self-motivation help you learn and become more capable.

Examples of intrinsic motivators vary from person to person. They are fostered by individuals and manifest themselves in many ways. Mastery of a piece of music. Reading for pleasure. Playing a game because you think it’s fun. Intrinsic motivation provides you with the power to do things you enjoy, simply because you enjoy them. And accomplish tasks you don’t enjoy because it will ultimately be good for you.

Biological Factors for Motivation

Whether it’s external or intrinsic, motivation originates in the amygdala—a grape-sized portion of the brain located in each hemisphere. So, like most things, the science of self-motivation starts in your brain. The amygdala is part of the limbic system, which controls your emotions and directs memory storage.

Your amygdala works with a hormone called dopamine. This neurotransmitter (a brain chemical messenger) is usually associated with pleasure. But dopamine has recently been linked to motivation, too. It’s still not clear exactly what the connection is, but researchers are continually investigating its role in the brain.

Here’s what is known: Brain-mapping techniques show that highly motivated people have lots of dopamine available in the right parts of their brains. When compared to less motivated people, go-getters don’t necessarily produce more dopamine. Rather, the hormone is concentrated in different areas of the brain; specifically, the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VPC) in the brains.

The striatum is located at the center of the brain. It performs essential functions related to decision making, planning, and motivation. The striatum works in conjunction with the VPC. Located toward the front of the brain, the VPC also plays important roles in decision making and self-control. Both are critical to successful goal-getting.

Dopamine can also concentrate in the anterior insula, a section of the brain associated with emotion and risk. For individuals who struggle with self-motivation, it may be the case that a concentration in the anterior insula exists.

There is also growing evidence that you may be able to train your brain to become more motivated. That means directing dopamine towards the key areas of the brain mentioned above. This branch of science is still young, so you won’t find any tips right now. But as the understanding of dopamine and motivation grows, more valid methods for directing dopamine could also pop up.

Opposing Forces in Self-Motivation: Willpower and Procrastination

Two kinds of behavior meet motivation head on—willpower and procrastination. The former provides you with mental strength and fortitude. The latter distracts from the important tasks at hand. Both are extremely effective and can lead to dramatically different results.

Willpower is the ability to resist short-term gratification while chasing long-term goals. Think of ignoring the urge to indulge in high-calorie foods when you’re trying to lose weight. Whatever the end-goal, willpower is a tool to help you get there.

Armed with willpower, you may enjoy several positive life outcomes in addition to meeting goals. People with lots of willpower are shown to have:

  • Better grades in school
  • Increased financial security
  • Higher self-esteem
  • A greater overall sense of well-being

Motivation and willpower are teammates in the game of personal improvement. Willpower fuels the self-motivation you need to set goals and achieve them. By setting aside behaviors or habits that can derail your progress, willpower can make you a champion of personal betterment.

Procrastination is willpower’s nemesis. It’s the act of avoiding or delaying work that must get done. While willpower strengthens your drive to tackle your to-do list, procrastination is the ultimate challenger to that endeavor.

You may have a hard time recognizing procrastination. It has several forms. At the most basic level, procrastination is putting off a task to be completed until the last possible moment. You fail to start a work assignment until a day or two before it’s due. Or you ignore the low fuel indicator and wait until your tank is on empty to fill up on gas.

It’s possible that your brain uses procrastination to temporarily relieve emotional stress. There is some evidence to suggest that procrastinating important projects provides short-term mood improvement. But when the stress-reducing effects wear off, you’re left with a lot of work to do in a short period of time.

Procrastination in any form eats away at your motivation to meet your goals. So, do yourself a favor and shut it down early, before it snowballs out of control. Instead, ramp up your willpower next time you feel motivated to get something done.

How to Get Motivated with Temptation Bundling and Habit Stacking

There are lots of tips and tricks to improve your self-motivation and dedication to your goals. Two great ones are temptation bundling and habit stacking. Each method helps reinforce your motivation for a particular goal, habit, or behavior. Try each out and see what works best for you.

Temptation Bundling

It’s hard not to procrastinate when your favorite activities distract you from crucial work. Whether it’s exercise or household chores, these needs take a backseat to fun temptations. But what if you can actually mix work and pleasure?

Suppose you want to get caught up on your favorite TV show. Binge-watching TV is one of the least productive ways to spend your time. It’s relaxing, but spending hours in front of a screen dwindles your time to complete other tasks (and is terrible for your weight).

But if you pair your nightly TV time with something productive—like exercise or folding the laundry—you’ll fulfill your desire to watch the show and get things done at the same time. This partnering of activities you want to do with those you need to do is called temptation bundling.

It works like this: temptations (television) are only indulged at the same time as behaviors or tasks that need to be done (exercising or folding laundry). Associating necessary activities with a more pleasurable one helps essentials like household chores and physical fitness become more enticing.

This package deal is called a temptation bundle. And it can help you stop procrastination in its tracks.

Habit Stacking

This idea (also called habit chaining) relies on using old habits to support new ones. Daily actions that don’t require much effort (like established habits) can trigger the motivation to form new habits.

This concept relies on a phenomenon in the brain called synaptic pruning. Here’s how it works. Messages in your brain are carried across neurons via synapses. There are synaptic pathways all throughout your brain, but they are not all put to use. Some pathways are “pruned” or cut back, while others are used over and over.

Habits and routines are believed to mark the pathways you use frequently. That’s why it’s difficult to break old habits and create new synaptic pathways all at once. But this principle also allows new habits to “piggyback” on older, well-established ones.

Making small adjustments and adding new activities to your existing habit chain helps you take advantage of the previously developed synaptic pathways. Small incremental shifts in your daily routine allow for more manageable additions to stack on your brain’s well-established paths.

Soon, the struggle to begin a new routine is a thing of the past. Your brain is using its trusted synaptic pathways to support your growth and development.

Now imagine what habit stacking might look like in your daily life. Take drinking more water, for example.

Let’s say you have the habit of taking a 10-minute break each hour from your desk at work. You stand up, stretch, and use the restroom. If you want to work on staying hydrated, consider drinking a glass of water each time you head back to your desk. Adding a drink of water to your routine completes a new link to your chain of habits.

Pretty soon, drinking water regularly becomes second nature, just like your hourly leg stretch and walk around the office. Stacking new goals on top of existing habits supports their development and makes them easier to remember.

Here are some other examples of habit chaining:

  • Making a lunch for tomorrow as you put away leftovers from dinner tonight.
  • Adding flossing to your bedtime ritual after you brush your teeth and before you wash your face.
  • Hanging up your coat as soon as you walk in the house, then taking your shoes off and placing them in the closet, too.

Habit chains can be as long or as short as you need. After several weeks of practice, you may find your original chain has shaped a new routine of productivity. Put this motivational method to the test to achieve your goals.

Reinforce Your Motivation and GET. THINGS. DONE.

If there are goals you’re trying to meet or new habits you want to practice, know you have the tools to make it happen. You just need to put the science of self-motivation to work for you. Pull energy from whatever force motivates you (internal or external) and focus it on your goal. Draw on your willpower and put procrastination back in its place.

And if you need a little extra boost to see your motivation through to the end, implement temptation bundling or habit stacking. Make use of your powerful brain and the resources within you. They will support you and your dedication to achieving your goals.

It’s time to get motivated to do something great.

About the Author

Sydney Sprouse is a freelance science writer based out of Forest Grove, Oregon. She holds a bachelor of science in human biology from Utah State University, where she worked as an undergraduate researcher and writing fellow. Sydney is a lifelong student of science and makes it her goal to translate current scientific research as effectively as possible. She writes with particular interest in human biology, health, and nutrition.

When you’re thirsty, it’s hard to think about anything but an ice-cold drink. But that tempting soda or lemonade might not be the best choice. Added sugar and empty calories lurk in sweetened drinks. You need a beverage that’s refreshing and good for your body.

Staying hydrated is key to a healthy lifestyle. That’s why it’s important to pick beverages that will keep thirst at bay without wrecking your diet. Take this beverage quiz and learn how to tell good drinks from bad and find new ways to stay happy and hydrated.


You want to eat right and don’t know where to start. So, you find yourself surfing the web for examples of “good” and “bad” foods. A list of healthy options is essential for paving the road to a healthy diet. But lists do little to educate you on why good foods are, in fact, good for you.

You can pick better ingredients for healthier meals if you understand how the food you eat creates usable energy in your body. The glycemic index can be just the tool you need to build a better understanding of how food works in your body.

You already know that the food you eat becomes energy. But learning how to use the glycemic index can illuminate just how much energy you can derive from certain foods. It can also teach you about the quality and dependability of that energy.

Glucose—Derived from Food to Fuel the Body

The energy currency for your body is glucose. This simple sugar is an abundant carbohydrate in your diet. Not all of the carbohydrates you consume are in the form of glucose. But they can be transformed to provide this fuel. Throughout digestion, complex carbs are broken down into single glucose molecules to be used for energy or undigested and used to help remove waste.

Glucose—once it’s in this pure form—travels through the blood stream. It provides cellular energy that can be harnessed immediately. But not all energy is needed right away. Sometimes this energy is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen instead.  The pancreas helps your body make decisions about when to use or store glucose.

These decisions are important. Keeping blood sugar levels in a healthy, normal range makes it easier for your body to manage all the energy it gets from your diet.

Glycemic Index

The glycemic index (GI) provides a way to help you predict the blood-glucose-raising potential of a food. It’s a way of measuring the rate at which carbohydrates are broken down and appear in blood as simple sugars. In general, the more refined and processed the food, the faster it is broken down and the higher the GI.

Some foods can pump a lot of sugar into the blood stream in a short period of time. Foods that increase blood glucose levels quickly are called high-glycemic foods. Others let go of small amounts of glucose over the course of several hours. These are low-glycemic foods.

Let’s look at how glycemic index is calculated. The standard for comparison is glucose itself. It has a glycemic index of 100. The fact that the GI of glucose is 100 is incredibly significant. It represents how quickly food can be converted to blood glucose.

To find the glycemic index of all other foods, they must be compared to the GI of glucose. A pancake, an orange, and a handful of peanuts have very different GIs. That is because they are digested at different rates and cause different blood sugar responses.

Food Glycemic Index (GI)
Glucose 100
Pancake 67
Orange 42
Peanuts 18

(For a more comprehensive chart, there are a few good options you can turn to: The University of SydneyLinus Pauling Institute, and Research Gate.)

When you eat a pancake, orange, peanuts, or any other food, your blood sugar increases. A medium-sized pancake creates a blood-glucose response that’s 67 percent of the response to pure glucose. An orange, is 42 percent of that glucose response. And peanuts influence blood glucose very little when compared to glucose—only 18 percent.

Basically, when you know the GI of any food, you know how it will generally impact blood-sugar levels relative to glucose. Glycemic index tables list hundreds of foods. Some with high, moderate, and low GIs. Here’s how the categories break down:

  • High GI >= 70. Potatoes, cornflakes, jelly beans, watermelon, and white bread are all high GI foods.
  • Moderate GI 56-69. Rice, banana, honey, and pineapple are moderate GI foods.
  • Low GI < 55. Lentils, carrots, apples, oranges, and pears are all low GI foods.

The glycemic index has a lot of strengths. It highlights the ability of foods to raise blood sugar; and allows blood-glucose response comparison between foods. But the glycemic index doesn’t consider the quantity of the food being consumed.

GI values remain the same for all foods, no matter how much you eat. But that doesn’t mean that eating a lot of a high-glycemic food has the same effect on blood sugar as eating only a little bit. In fact, the opposite is true.

So, how can you use the glycemic index to make smart eating choices? It is hard to judge the difference in quality of foods when pretzels, white bread, and crackers have similar GIs to watermelon and pineapple. Luckily, there’s a solution.

Glycemic Load

Cue glycemic load. A robust, qualitative, and quantitative way to use information from the glycemic index to understand how food affects blood sugar.

Glycemic load (GL) accounts for the quantity of the food in question. GL reflects the blood-glucose-raising potential of how much of a certain food you eat. You can calculate glycemic load for any given food by dividing the GI by 100, then multiplying that number by the amount of available carbohydrates in a serving.

GLfood = (GIfood / 100) x (grams of carbohydrates – grams of fiber)

* Remember, fiber is the material in food that isn’t fully digested by your body. So, when figuring out how many available carbohydrates are in your favorite snack, subtract the grams of fiber from the total grams of carbohydrates.

The values associated with glycemic load are much smaller than glycemic index:

  • High GL >= 20.
  • Moderate GL 11-19.
  • Low GL < 10.

GL takes into consideration the amount of digestible carbohydrates in each serving of food. This is important because sometimes foods with similar GIs have dramatically higher carbohydrate counts.

To demonstrate how glycemic load accounts for carbohydrate content, let’s look at an example. A cup of watermelon and a cup of cornflakes have very similar GIs. They are both high-glycemic foods. But cornflakes and watermelon have very different GLs.

The GL for a cup of cornflakes is 20, making it a high-glycemic-load food. The watermelon’s GL is only eight. These numbers tell you that there are a lot more carbohydrates in one serving of cornflakes than there are in watermelon. To be exact, one cup of cornflakes has 26 grams of carbs. The same amount of watermelon has only 11.

Since watermelon has fewer carbs, it also has fewer calories per serving. Watermelon is a better choice than cornflakes when you’re looking for a quick snack. It’s less calorie dense but just as effective at providing the energy you need to make it to your next meal.

What if instead of one cup of watermelon, you ate two cups? GL reflects the size of your portion of food. It can tell you that the amount of food you eat also influences your blood sugar.

Generally, low GL foods have fewer calories than high GL foods. So high calorie foods aren’t the only option when you need a boost of energy. Low-glycemic-load foods are equipped to provide fuel for your body with a lower risk of overeating and weight gain.

Using GI and GL to Shape a Healthy Diet

You already know that high GI foods act rapidly to influence blood sugar, providing quick energy. However, this energy is usually short-lived and hunger soon returns. This could potentially lead to overeating and weight gain.

Low glycemic index foods affect blood sugar more slowly and steadily. These foods provide greater satiety and longer lasting, more consistent energy. That makes eating less (and maintaining weight) easier.

Spotting high GI/GL and low GI/GL foods takes practice. Luckily, there are easy rules to follow that can set you up for success.

  1. Create meals with lots of low and moderate GI/GL foods. Limit high GI/GL foods because they are high in calories and cause blood-sugar highs.
  2. Look for non-starchy veggies and fruits. Apples, berries, pears, beans, broccoli, and cauliflower are low GI/GL foods. They will provide plenty of energy over a sustained period of time due to their high fiber content.
  3. When in doubt, reach for whole grains. Oats, brown rice, barley, and whole wheat are great choices. Again, lots of natural fiber means longer lasting energy.
  4. Avoid packaged and processed foods that are low in protein, fiber and fats. These types of foods are typically high in simple carbohydrates while low in other important macronutrients giving them higher GI/GL values.
  5. Moderation matters. Regardless of GI/GL, eat mindfully. Try your best to listen to your body and its signals. When you feel tired and need some energy, eat a healthy snack. When you are full, end your meal and get up and move.

There are lots of ways to make healthy eating choices. Being aware of how the food you eat could affect your blood sugar is just another way to maintain good nutrition and good health.

About the Author

Sydney Sprouse is a freelance science writer based out of Forest Grove, Oregon. She holds a bachelor of science in human biology from Utah State University, where she worked as an undergraduate researcher and writing fellow. Sydney is a lifelong student of science and makes it her goal to translate current scientific research as effectively as possible. She writes with particular interest in human biology, health, and nutrition.

Dieting to lose weight has become a regular pastime for many adults. But, how is that working out? Not great. Studies show that within five years, 60 percent of dieters regain more weight than they lost on their diets.

If no diet seems to work well over time—according to the research—why are there so many? A quick search can pull up hundreds. It’s because even if you haven’t succeeded before, attaining and maintaining a healthy weight is a noble goal. And it’s one that can pay big health dividends.

Why Diets are Popular?

Weight management is one of the world’s biggest health issues. Worldwide obesity has nearly tripled since 1975. In the United States, 39.6 percent of adults are classified as obese. As of 2016, globally, 39 percent of adults were overweight and 13 percent were obese.

The reality of modern life is that most of the world’s population lives in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than the problem of being underweight. And, it’s not just about food consumption. Less than five percent of U.S. adults participate in 30 minutes of physical activity each day. And only one in three adults receives the recommended amount of physical activity each week.

What is a Diet?

A general definition of diet is “the sum of energy and nutrients obtained from foods and beverages consumed regularly by individuals.” The fact that a diet is healthy or nutritious doesn’t necessarily make it ideal for weight control. So, this article will focus only on reduced-energy diets intended to shrink bodyweight and body fat.

The most basic and long-held principle of weight loss or gain is determined by either a calorie deficit or excess. You might know this as calories in/calories out, or caloric balance. The oversimplification of the caloric balance concept has led to a call to “eat less, move more” as a solution to the worldwide obesity problem.

While the caloric balance concept is ultimately true, it isn’t that simple and doesn’t account for the composition of weight gained or lost. Numerous factors influence eating behaviors and dictate energy intake (calories taken in). In addition, there are multiple factors tied to the “calories out” side of the equation (calories burned). This article only focuses on the diet, or “calories in” side of the equation.

And there’s plenty to discuss on that side of the equation. Below, you won’t find every popular diet available today—there are too many. Instead, you’ll see analysis of the major diet types, or concepts. Don’t worry, most common diets or brands will fall under one of the classifications discussed below.

With so many major diet types, conflicting information and new fads thrown at you constantly, how do you know which diet or eating pattern is the best? Take a look at the science behind these major diet types.

Low-Carbohydrate Diets

You’ve heard it before: carbs are just the worst. That statement may be a little too over the top. But there are plenty of diets that focus on limiting carbohydrates. Low-carb diets are a broad category that’s difficult to define precisely.

But let’s try. Official U.S. government guidelines suggest an intake of 45-65 percent of calories from carbohydrates. So, let’s define a low carb diet as a carbohydrate intake of 10-40 percent of total daily calories. (Carbohydrate intakes of 10 percent or less—or about 50 grams—result in elevated blood ketone bodies and changes in energy metabolism. These very low-carb diets deserve a separate discussion. So, you’ll read about ketogenic diets in the next section.)

Their popularity might make you expect the research about low carb to be outstanding. But studies comparing the effects of low-fat diets and low-carb diets have provided mixed results. That’s especially true with studies that use a more liberal definition of low-carb diets (less than 40 percent of calories from carbs). That research has shown little difference in body weight and waist circumference when comparing low-carb to low-fat diets.

But research comparing lower carbohydrate intake (less than 20 percent of calories) has favored low-carb diets over low-fat for weight loss and improvement of health risk factors.

A recent meta-analysis looked at the effect of low-carb diets on fat mass and body weight. The diets in the analysis were categorized as either mild low-carb (about 40 percent carbs) or very low-carb (about 10 percent carbohydrates). With all low-carb diets considered, the fat loss was greater with low-carb than the control diets.

And the lower carb, the better the results. When they compared each type of low-carb diet (mild and very low), the diet with just 10 percent carbs had significant difference compared to the control. The mild did not.

But it should be noted that the absolute difference in fat loss after 12 months between either of the low-carb diets and the control diets was only 0.57-1.46 kg. This small difference in results after a year is likely not very compelling for the average dieter.


  • Defaults to higher protein intake, which helps you feel fuller.
  • Provides flexibility with regard to fat and protein intake.
  • Does not indiscriminately prohibit foods based on fat content.


  • Significantly limiting carbohydrates may falsely convey the message that carbohydrates are solely responsible for weight gain.
  • Limits healthy fruit, vegetable, whole grain, and legume servings in the diet.

Examples: Atkins, Dukan, Zone, South Beach diet, Stillman, Kimkins

Ketogenic Diets

If you have read anything about health and diet over the past couple of years, you’re probably familiar with the term “keto.”

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a variation of a low-carbohydrate diet, but different enough to earn a separate discussion. Unlike the rather liberal definition of low-carb diets in general, the keto diet is objectively defined by its ability to measurably elevate circulating ketone bodies or ketones. These are chemicals your body produces when it burns stored fat.

Entering this state of ketone elevation is also known as nutritional ketosis. And it’s important to distinguish it from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA can be a life-threatening condition resulting from dangerously high levels of ketones and glucose (sugar) in the blood. This combination makes your blood too acidic. That can severely impact the function of organs like the liver and kidneys. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs primarily in Type I diabetics and in the absence of insulin.

Nutritional ketosis can result from a very low-carb diet, fasting, or if you’ve consumed too much alcohol. If you’re in ketosis, you have a higher than usual level of ketones in your blood or urine, but not high enough to cause acidosis.

Now you know the difference between DKA and dietary ketosis. So, let’s focus on how to achieve the sweet spot for dietary ketosis. Aside from completely fasting, ketosis can be attained by restricting carbohydrates to less than 50 grams per day (or about 10 percent of energy intake). The typical ketogenic diet would be:

  • 5-10 percent carbohydrates
  • 15-20 percent protein
  • 70-80 percent fat

It is important to mention that extreme carb restriction often results in unpleasant side effects at the beginning. Commonly known as the “keto flu,” many dieters experience fatigue, weakness, brain fog, headaches, irritability, and nausea. The time it takes to adapt to a keto diet is different for everybody. But after two-to-three weeks, most low-carb dieters report improved mental concentration, focus, and physical energy.

Keto advocates say the production of ketone bodies and a state of ketosis results in a unique metabolic state. It’s this state, they say, that helps keto diets do better than other diets at losing fat. But the scientific evidence for this assertion is mixed, at best.

The true test of the keto state happens when researchers match up the protein and energy intake between keto and non-keto diets. Experiments with this setup, with very few exceptions, have failed to show a fat-loss advantage with keto. This has been shown in the most controlled setting (where participants eat only what is given to them). In these strict studies, comparisons between keto and non-keto diets that have equal calories and protein have never reported significantly increased energy expenditure or greater loss of body fat with keto diets.

Two meta-analyses provided strong evidence against a metabolic advantage to near total carbohydrate restriction, like keto. The analyses included 32 studies, all of which were strictly controlled with all the food provided to the subjects. Carbohydrates ranged from one to 83 percent and dietary fat ranged from four to 84 percent of total energy. No metabolic or fat loss advantage was seen in the low-carbohydrate conditions. On the contrary, fat loss was slightly greater in the higher carb or low-fat condition.

Critics of the existing literature suggest that trials need to run longer to allow for sufficient “ketoadaptation.” This is a physical shift away from using sugar for fuel and toward an increase in fat as a primary fuel source. However, when objectively measured, the increased percentage of fat burned for fuel plateaus after about one week on a ketogenic diet. Simply put, rigorously controlled studies have shown ketoadaptation doesn’t necessarily amount to a net decrease in body fat.

If there is any advantage to keto diets for fat loss, it is potentially in the realm of appetite regulation. Even without calorie restrictions, keto has consistently resulted in body fat and/or body-weight reduction. That’s because fat and protein improve satiety, which helps keto dieters to eat fewer calories. Ketogenic diets also may increase satiety through a suppression of ghrelin production (a hormone that stimulates appetite). However, it remains unclear whether the appetite suppression is due to ketosis or other factors like increases in protein, or restriction of carbohydrates.


  • Defaults to higher protein intake.
  • Suppresses appetite or controls hunger, even with no imposed calorie restrictions.
  • Simplifies meal planning and dietary decision-making process.


  • Severely restricts fruit, vegetable, whole grain, and legumes, which are significant sources of fiber and nutrients in the diet.
  • Can compromise high-intensity training output.
  • Has not shown superior effects on body composition compared to non-keto diets when protein and calories are matched.
  • Dietary extremes make it hard to stay on or stay compliant, long term.

Intermittent Fasting

You can probably guess how intermittent fasting diets work. It’s right there in the name. Intermittent fasting is where you cycle between periods of eating and fasting. That makes dieting less about which foods you should eat, and more about when you should eat them.

There are numerous variations of intermittent fasting. But it can be divided into three major subclasses: alternate-day fasting, whole-day fasting, and time-restricted feeding.

Alternate-day fasting is the most studied variation. You may have also heard it called The Every Other Day Diet. As the name suggests, alternate day typically involves switching between 24-hours of fasting and 24-hour feeding periods. The feeding day is not restricted by calories or food types.

Studies have shown that dieters do not eat enough on feeding day to offset the prior day’s fast. Over time, this leads to a calorie deficit and weight loss. Research has also shown that lean body mass is well conserved with this approach. A popular variation of the alternate day diet includes a small meal (fewer than 500 calories) on fasting day rather than zero calories. This variation may slow weight loss slightly, but seems to help further preserve lean body mass and improve compliance.

Whole-day fasting typically involves one or two 24-hour fasting periods throughout the week of otherwise normal eating. Like alternate day, variations to whole day include no-food fast days or those with 500-600 calories. Whole-day fasting has been shown to be as effective as daily calorie restriction for losing body weight and fat. (This was shown over a period of three to six months of similar weekly calorie deficit.)

Time-restricted feeding does just that—limiting the time you eat to several hours a day. Generally, that means a fasting period of 16-20 hours and four to eight hours of unrestricted eating. Until recently, little research has been done on these diets. Two recent studies using 20/4 and 16/8 fasting and feeding schedules in active individuals showed promise. They found the time restrictions lowered body fat while maintaining lean-body mass—compared to normal diet controls.

The largest review of intermittent fasting research found very similar results when comparing the effects of intermittent fasting to continuous calorie restriction. Body-composition change and other positive outcomes between the two diets were considered equivalent. However, intermittent fasting was considered superior at suppressing hunger.


  • All three forms of intermittent fasting have relatively strong evidence for performing equally or better than daily caloric restriction for improving body composition.
  • Intermittent fasting diets have unrestricted eating cycles and precise calorie counting isn’t needed.
  • Time-restricted feeding—combined with training—has emerging evidence for fat loss while maintaining strength.


  • Unhealthy food choices and excess calories can become part of the unrestricted feeding periods.
  • If optimal athletic performance is a concern, intermittent fasting requires caution and careful planning.
  • Extra considerations may be necessary with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes.

Examples: Every Other Day Diet, The 5:2 Diet

Low-Fat Diets

Low-fat diets typically provide 20–35 percent of calories from fat. This range is based on the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for adults set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine.

Since the 1950s, health professionals have promoted eating less fat to improve public health. Updated dietary guidelines have maintained these recommendations, and major health organizations—like the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association—support these guidelines. And, a strong base of scientific evidence supports low-to-moderate fat intake for health benefits.

Research has consistently shown that reducing fat intake below normal levels is helpful. It can lead to moderate, but consistent, weight loss, reduction in body fat, and decreased waist circumference. However, over the long-term, lower fat diets have not consistently resulted in greater weight loss than simply reducing overall calories.

The average adult in the U.S. consumes only 33 percent of their calories from fat. So, simply reducing fat intake slightly won’t likely be an effective strategy for most people eating a typical diet.

What about a more drastic reduction in fat? Getting only 10-20 percent of your calories from fat is considered a very low-fat diet. Limited amounts of research exist on diets that fit this profile. But the diets have consistently shown positive effects on weight loss and health.

Results change when very low-fat diets were compared with other diets of equal calorie intake. These studies analyzed body composition and showed no significant difference in body-fat reduction. Also, these very low-fat diets are difficult to maintain long-term. And studies that have instructed subjects to consume fat at 10-20 percent have revealed actual intakes around 26 percent.


  • Low-fat diets have the support of major health organizations. That’s because they have a large base of scientific evidence supporting their health effects.
  • They allow flexibility with protein and carbohydrate intake.
  • Does not indiscriminately vilify foods based on carbohydrate content.


  • May falsely convey the message that dietary fat is solely responsible for excess body fat.
  • Increased intakes of carbohydrates often include unhealthy sugar and increased processed foods.
  • Very low-fat diets are hard to maintain and lack enough solid evidence on body composition comparisons.

Examples: Lowfat: Volumetrics, DASH  Very low-fat: Ornish, Pritikin

Meal Replacements and Low-Calorie Diets

A meal replacement diet is just what it sounds like. Meal replacement programs typically provide between 800 and 1,200 calories per day. That’s why they’re often called low-calorie diets.

These diets usually require substituting one or two meals per day, with an additional healthy, low-calorie meal. There are considerable variations between programs, but the goal is the same. You replace your regular meals with low-calorie shakes and snacks to reduce overall energy intake. This beneficial calorie imbalance results in weight loss.

Most meal replacement programs suggest replacing two meals per day initially. That starts dieters off with more rapid weight loss. Then they transition to one replacement per day as a maintenance routine. Many scientific trials have supported the feasibility of this strategy. But it’s usually a relatively short-term fix. So, long-term success also depends on improved dietary habits and lifestyle modifications.

Before swapping out your ordinary food for packaged shakes, snacks, and soups, there are a few things to consider about the quality of the products. They should provide a balance of macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and fats), just like in a healthy meal.

Protein quantity and quality should be a primary concern. Aim for enough to provide the minimum daily recommended protein intake when added to your regular meal(s). A protein intake of 15-25 percent of total calories is generally accepted as safe in normally healthy adults. This would equate to 45-75 grams of protein on a 1,200-calorie-per-day diet.

The quality of the protein is also important. So, most meal-replacement shakes use dairy, soy, egg, or a mixture of plant proteins. This ensures the shake contains adequate levels of all the essential amino acids. A sufficient dosage of varied, high-quality protein will help conserve lean body mass (muscles and organs) during weight loss. For more information on protein, check out this page.

The amounts of carbohydrate and fat will vary significantly between different replacement products. Even though their specific dosages are less important than the protein, they’re still worth noting. The average adult already struggles to get the recommended intake of fiber (25-30 grams). So, the products should contain a beneficial amount of soluble and insoluble fiber.

The addition of some fat helps with satiety and improves the absorption of certain nutrients.

And, because you’re replacing meals, it’s important your meal replacement contains a mixture of vitamins and minerals. This helps account for nutrients in the food you replace. If not, a daily multivitamin can help you meet daily minimum recommendations.

The safest and most effective meal replacements contain an appropriate balance of micro- and macronutrients. That means adequate level of quality protein, low-to-moderate carbohydrate content (with significant amounts of fiber), some healthy fat, and a broad spectrum of vitamins and minerals.


  • The diets involve premade products that eliminate or minimize the need for cooking and planning.
  • Can help break snacking and other mindless eating patterns.
  • Meal replacement products can be found in just about every supermarket health-food aisle and pharmacy.


  • Lack of variety can affect compliance and long-term adherence.
  • There is high variation in the quality of processed foods.

Examples: Slim Fast, USANA RESET, Medifast, Body for Life, Nutrisystem, Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig

Very Low-Calorie Diets

Very low-calorie diets are indeed very restrictive. They typically provide only 400–800 calories per day. Because of the extreme calorie restriction, they’re rarely the first treatment plan for weight loss.

These diets are typically commercially prepared liquids, although some plans include soups and bars. The purpose of the diet is to induce rapid weight loss (1.0–2.5 kg/week or 2–5 pounds per week) while preserving as much lean mass as possible. Very low-calorie diets are generally used in situations of extreme obesity and require medical supervision.

On this type of diet, all regular food consumption is replaced. But theses diets shouldn’t be confused with meal replacement products, which typically replace one or two meals per day. The replacements in very low-calorie diets are fortified with the full spectrum of essential micronutrients and appropriate levels of macronutrients. The macronutrient content is approximately:

  • Protein: 70-100 grams per day
  • Fat: 15 grams per day
  • Carbohydrates: 30-80 grams per day.

Dieters using these programs report weight loss that’s 75 percent fat and 15 percent lean mass. Resistance training can help preserve muscle during a very low-calorie diet, especially in untrained obese subjects.

In obese populations, aggressive caloric restriction is a potentially powerful intervention. The greater initial weight loss is associated with greater long-term success in weight-loss maintenance. (That shows the importance of a strong start for dieters.) But some research has found these diets don’t result in greater long-term (one year or more) weight loss than diets of 800-1,200 calories per day.

Although very low-calorie consumption can be the best suited for certain situations, it should be done with professional assistance. Poor quality protein and inadequate medical supervision can lead to disastrous results. Possible side effects include excessive loss of lean mass, cold intolerance, fatigue, headache, dizziness, muscle cramps, and constipation. Hair loss has also been noted as a common complaint.


  • Can induce rapid weight loss (1.0–2.5 kg/week or 2–5 pounds per week).
  • The diets generally involve premade products that eliminate or minimize the need for cooking and planning.


  • Very low-calorie diets have a higher risk for more severe side-effects, but don’t necessary outperform low-calorie diets in the long-term.
  • Should be done under the supervision of a medical professional.
  • Very low-calorie diets have limited relevance to healthy and athletic people.

Examples: Optifast, KicStart, Optislim, Proslim

And the Winner Is?

If you are uncertain or confused about which diet or diet type is best for weight loss, that’s OK. Because there isn’t really a winner.

The various diet subtypes are wide-ranging in what and how much you can eat. Each type carries varying degrees of supporting data, and unfounded claims. In the end, though, long-term diet studies don’t support a significant difference between diet types. When calorie count is equal, the ability to reduce body fat is pretty much equal, too.

Each diet type has potentially unique means by which they can achieve the intended objective (i.e., improving satiety, ease of compliance, reducing hunger, etc.). But there’s a common thread that runs through all of the diets. And it’s a sustained reduction in calories eaten relative to calories burned. Diets may get there in different ways, but they’re all ultimately based on energy balance.

What Diet Should You Choose?

It comes down to what works for you. There are numerous subtypes that fall under the major diet categories above. But most diets focused on fat loss work the same—through calorie deficits. With adequate protein levels, it makes little difference whether the calorie deficit is due to a reduction in fat, carbs, or improved portion control. It also seems to make little difference whether you reduce calories daily and consistently, or by alternating fasting and unrestricted days over the course of a week.

The long-term success of the diet depends upon how well you can stick to it over time. Your chance of success is significantly better if you choose a diet with these four things:

  • Fits your general food preferences
  • Controls your hunger
  • Supports your activity level
  • Fits your lifestyle

If you need to lose weight, choose a diet that works for you, focus on health, and sticking to it. Even modest weight loss of five to 10 percent of your total body weight, can result in health benefits. These include improvements in blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugars.

You may need to purchase some new clothes, but that’s a side effect you will likely be fine with.

Characteristics of the Major Diet Subtypes

Diet Composition Strengths Limitations
Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) 50–150 g carbs, or up to 40% of kcals from carbs Defaults to higher protein intake, which helps you feel fuller.

Provides flexibility with regard to fat and protein intake.

Does not indiscriminately prohibit foods based on fat content.

Significantly limiting carbohydrates may falsely convey the message that carbohydrates are solely responsible for weight gain.

Limits healthy fruit, vegetable, whole grain, and legume servings in the diet.

Ketogenic diets (KD) 5-10% (less than 50 grams) carbohydrates

15-20% protein

70-80% fat

Defaults to higher protein intake.

Suppresses appetite or controls hunger, even with no imposed calorie restrictions.

Simplifies meal planning and dietary decision-making process.

Severely restricts fruit, vegetable, whole grain, and legumes, which are significant sources of fiber and nutrients in the diet.

Can compromise high-intensity training output.

Has not shown superior effects on body composition compared to non-keto diets when protein and calories are matched.

Dietary extremes make it hard to stay on or stay compliant, long term.

Low-fat diets (LFD) and very low-fat diets (VLFD) LFD: 25–30% fat

VLFD: 10–20% fat

Low-fat diets have the support of the major health organizations. That’s because they have a large base of scientific evidence supporting their health effects.

They allow flexibility with protein and carbohydrate intake.

Does not indiscriminately vilify foods based on carbohydrate content.

Upper limits of fat allowance may falsely convey the message that dietary fat is solely responsible for excess body fat.

Increased intakes of carbohydrates often include unhealthy sugar and increased processed foods.

Very low-fat diets are hard to maintain and lack enough solid evidence on body composition comparisons.

Intermittent Fasting (IF) Alternate-day fasting (ADF): alternating 24-hour fast, 24-hour feed.

Whole-day fasting (WDF): 1–2 complete days of fasting per week.

Time-restricted feeding (TRF): 16–20-hour fast, 4–8-hour feed, daily.

All three forms of intermittent fasting have relatively strong evidence for performing equally or better than daily caloric restriction for improving body composition.

Intermittent fasting diets have unrestricted eating cycles and precise calorie counting isn’t needed.

Time-restricted feeding combined with training has emerging evidence for fat loss while maintaining strength.

Unhealthy food choices and excess calories can become part of the unrestricted feeding periods.

If optimal athletic performance is a concern, intermittent fasting requires caution and careful planning.

Extra considerations may be necessary with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes.

Low-Calorie Diets (LCD) with

Meal Replacements

Balanced macronutrients –

800-1,500 kilocalories (Kcal) per day

The diets involve premade products that eliminate or minimize the need for cooking and planning.

Can help break snacking and other mindless eating patterns.

Meal replacement products can be found in just about every supermarket health-food aisle and pharmacy.

Lack of variety can affect compliance and long-term adherence.

There is high variation in the quality of processed foods.

Very Low-Calorie Diets (VLCD) VLCD: 400–800 kcal/day Can induce rapid weight loss (1.0–2.5 kg/week or 2–5 pounds per week).

The diets generally involve premade products that eliminate or minimize the need for cooking and planning.

Very low-calorie diets have a higher risk for more severe side-effects, but don’t necessary outperform low calorie diets in the long-term.

Should be done under the supervision of a medical professional.

Very low-calorie diets have limited relevance to healthy and athletic people.


List of diets – Wikipedia. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(2018, March 23). Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity … – The JAMA Network. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(2017, October 13). Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth – CDC. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(n.d.). Clinical Guidelines – National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute – NIH. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(n.d.). Dietary Guidelines – Center for Nutrition …. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(2011, November 8). Healthy People 2010 – CDC. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(n.d.). Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments: diets … – NCBI – NIH. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(2011, August 9). Does dieting make you fat? A twin study. – NCBI – NIH. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

(2018, February 16). Obesity and overweight – World Health Organization. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from

United States Census Bureau. The 2012 Statistical Abstract. Health & Nutrition: Food Consumption and Nutrition. Table 217. Per Capita Consumption of Major Food Commodities: 1980 to 2009.

Meal Replacements and Low-Calorie Diets

Low-Fat Diets

Low-Carbohydrate Diets

Ketogenic Diets

Intermittent Fasting


Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach (Feb 2016)

“WILL YOU SMELL THIS?” You’ve probably had experience with this question before. And if you haven’t been the one asking, you’ve definitely been on the receiving end.

With larger-than-life refrigerators, it can be easy to forget what’s hiding in the back of yours. And as the days on your calendar tick by, the expiration dates on your questionable food items draw near.

But expired foods are only the most obvious and easily avoidable culprits when it comes to proper food safety and preventing food poisoning. There’s many more potential pitfalls, though. Making mistakes when preparing, handling, and cooking food can leave you spending your evening on the bathroom floor.

Food Poisoning: Bad Bug Basics

Improper food safety can lead to food poisoning or foodborne illness. These issues are the result of eating contaminated foods. Contamination can occur when your food is exposed to certain bacteria, viruses, parasites, and/or chemicals, and not properly handled or treated.

You’ll hear about safe food handling below. First, let’s talk about three of the most common bacterial contaminants: Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Take a closer look at these bacteria, how they might come in contact with your food, and how to protect yourself.


The Centers for Disease Control in the U.S., estimates that over one million Americans suffer from Salmonella infection each year. Tens of thousands are hospitalized. Young children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable when they come into contact with Salmonella. Food is the source of nearly all Salmonella infections.

Food sources for Salmonella are contaminated:

Salmonella is often found in intestines, and therefore, the feces of animals—especially reptiles. Since fecal matter often contaminates the living environment of the animal (e.g., a chicken coop), the entire outer surface of the animal can become contaminated. This is how eggs and chicken meat can get infected.

If you come into contact with Salmonella unknowingly, you may experience symptoms including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain or discomfort. These symptoms can last as long as a week—a painful experience for anyone.

Take precautions to protect yourself from illness by Salmonella. Always wash your hands thoroughly after handling animals. Cook your meat and eggs thoroughly to ensure the bacteria is destroyed (more on temperatures later). Enjoy pasteurized products when available, as this process kills the Salmonella bacteria.


These bad bacteria affect over one million people in the U.S., every year—and even more worldwide. Again, young children, older folks, and those with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to severe illness after Campylobacter infection.

The organs of animals (e.g., intestines and liver) are the most common home for Campylobacter bacteria. When animals are slaughtered for meat, the bacteria can spread, infecting more widely consumed parts of the animal. Campylobacter can also be spread through fecal matter touching other parts of the animal, nearby produce, or water sources.

Symptoms of a Campylobacter infection include fever, abdominal cramping, vomiting, and diarrhea (often bloody). These symptoms can last for only a couple of days to well over a week.

Take care to avoid Campylobacter infection by cooking meat thoroughly—especially poultry—to safe minimum temperatures. For poultry, the safe minimum temperature is 165 degrees Fahrenheit or 74 degrees Celsius.

E. coli

There are many harmless strains of E. coli … and then there are the few that can make you quite sick. The harmful strains can be found in animals—mainly cows, sheep, and goats. The bacteria are easily passed from these animals to their environment. This can contaminate the animals’ outer bodies and potentially their water sources. These contaminated water sources can also spread E. coli (or other bacteria) to vegetables. That happens when water is infected by animals and used to irrigate vegetable crops.

Symptoms of E. coli infection include vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea (often bloody). An E. coli infection can escalate into a more alarming condition known as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This can affect your red blood cells and, subsequently, your kidneys. If HUS develops, medical attention is necessary.

You can take easy and proper precautions to protect yourself from E. coli infection. It can be avoided by routinely washing your hands (before food preparation; after using the bathroom or changing an infant’s diaper; and when you’ve touched cows, sheep, goats or their environment). Cooking beef and other meats properly also helps. And avoiding unpasteurized milk and cheeses will help protect you from E. coli.

Simple Safety Steps

You might have noticed a theme to the safety steps touched on above. There are four key steps as you buy, prepare, handle, store, and cook your food. They are: clean, separate, cook, and chill.

  1. Clean

Above, you read about the importance of washing your hands. In addition, don’t forget the surfaces on which you handle food, and the containers you use to store it. This is especially true of animal-based products like meats and cheeses.

Keeping your hands and surfaces clean is also a time issue. Make sure that any time you touch raw meat you wash your hands immediately. The same goes for surfaces and other kitchen utensils used—clean them right after use. Bacteria can live on these surfaces for some time. Without quick and proper washing, your kitchen (and hands) can become a bacterial breeding ground.

  1. Separate

Once your hands and surfaces have been washed, it’s still possible for germs and harmful bacteria to spread. Food separation is what keeps cross contamination from occurring.

Keep animal-free products separate from animal-based products. That means fruits and vegetables are handled separately (and with separate utensils) from meat, seafood, poultry, and eggs.

Food separation starts at the grocery store. When you’re shopping, bag meats and other animal products separately from other food items. Grocery baggers usually take care of this on their own, but an extra watchful eye won’t hurt.

Once you’re home and preparing the food, use separate utensils (knives, spatulas, etc.) for animal-based products. The same goes for food storage. Store meat and other animal products separate from other food. This is especially important if the meat is raw.

  1. Cook

Bacteria feel especially at-home in your food between 40 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit, 4 to 60 degrees Celsius. This temperature range is when bacteria can most easily multiply. To keep your food safe, make sure you’re heating well above this range. Not sure what the appropriate temperature is? Check out the table below before you cook your next meal.

Meal or Food Product Minimum Internal Temperature
deg F deg C
Beef, pork, veal, & lamb (bone-in) 145 63
Ham 145 63
Seafood 145 63
Minced fish (fishcakes) 158 70
De-boned, ground, or minced meats 160 71
Eggs 160 71
All poultry 165 74
Leftovers 165 74
Casseroles 165 74
Stuffing (inside meat) 167 75

Often when eating in large parties, it’s typical to dish up your plate from a common pot and sit down to eat. It’s important to remember that part of food safety is keeping cooked food hot until it’s stored in the refrigerator. Ensure your pots of food are held at 140 degrees Fahrenheit (60 degrees Celsius) or more before sitting down to enjoy your meal.

  1. Chill

Bacteria can grow in your food if it’s not properly chilled within two hours of preparing or cooking. So, it’s important to store your foods properly—and quickly. The advice to let foods cool before placing them in the fridge is a myth. Don’t wait to get foods into refrigeration.

Once you’re done eating, make sure that your food is stored separately (as appropriate; see above), and placed in the refrigerator or freezer within the two-hour window. Breaking up extra-large portions into smaller containers will also help ensure your food is chilled quickly.

What about the reverse? A common misconception is that meat and other food can be safely thawed on the counter at room temperature. This is wrong. It’s unsafe! Room temperature is an inviting range for bacteria to thrive. Thaw frozen meats and other foods well ahead of time by moving it into the refrigerator. If you’re really in a hurry, consider a bowl of cold water or the microwave for a quicker thaw.

Final Food For Thought

Now you’re ready to head into the kitchen. You’ve tossed out expired or questionable food items. You’ve learned about foodborne pathogens to avoid. And you’re armed with food safety knowledge. But before you get into gourmet mode, let’s review some simple and helpful tips to keep you healthy in the kitchen:

  • Thoroughly clean and wash all fruits and vegetables. They can be contaminated before they even reach your home, either during harvesting or shipping.
  • Consider buying separate cutting boards for produce and meat. Some retailers sell a package of multiple cutting boards of different colors or with images of the board’s appropriate use etched into each one.
  • Invest in a food thermometer. Armed with the minimum internal temperature chart above, you’ll know when your favorite foods are ready to eat.
  • When buying meat at the store, wrap it in a plastic produce bag after receiving it from the butcher. That way if your purchases wind up in the same bag, there’s already a secondary barrier in place.
  • Wash as you go. Cleaning up after yourself while cooking makes the post-meal cleanse faster. It will also keep you from inadvertently cross-contaminating other surfaces or utensils.

Bon Appetit

Time to cook! Know that you have the knowledge, and now you just need the inspiration. Check some healthy recipes to spark your kitchen creativity. Happy cooking!

About the Author

Jenna Templeton is a health educator and freelance science writer living in Salt Lake City, Utah. After receiving a bachelor of science degree in chemistry from Virginia Tech, Jenna spent five years as a research scientist in the nutritional industry. This work fueled her interest in personal wellness, leading her to pursue a graduate degree in Health Promotion & Education from the University of Utah. Outside of work, Jenna enjoys live music, gardening, all things food, and playing in the Wasatch mountains.

A whiff of something enticing hits you and you immediately wonder what it is. You have to identify the smell. Before you know it, the scent has started a tango between your brain and your stomach. When you finally walk by a burger joint, pastry shop, or a place serving one of your favorites, it’s hard to turn off the craving.

This scene happens to everyone, even if your tummy is full. That’s because everybody has strong connections to different foods. It’s part of everyday life in a world full of potential food addictions. Yes, they’re real, and food addictions are hard to break.

But how, exactly, do you know when you’re addicted to a food or beverage? The answers are below. You’ll find out how your tastiest choices consistently register in your memory and what causes food addiction. With that brings the usual internal battles like how to pace or limit yourself in the face of your delicious addictions. You’ll find tips for accomplishing that tough task, too.

What is Food Addiction?

You have cravings for a variety of foods. There’s nothing to be ashamed of. It’s been scientifically shown that food addiction is an everyday issue some people encounter. So, if you’re dealing with it, you aren’t alone.

The cause of food addiction might seem like it starts in your rumbling stomach. But food addiction actually begins in your brain. That’s because it realizes that foods or drinks replete in fat, sugar, or salt are among the most rewarding and pleasurable for certain parts of your brain.

Studies have related the chemicals released in the brain when you eat certain foods to those that are released in the presence of an addictive drug. The substance most responsible for this is called dopamine.

That fact makes dopamine arguably one of the most impactful and crucial chemicals in your body. It’s a messenger between cells in your brain (also known as a neurotransmitter). And dopamine plays a direct role in how you move around, learn, and digest information—and digest foods, too. This brain chemical is what gets you up and going and helps you stay determined to tackle whatever you have in front of you.

But it also plays a key role in food addiction and cravings. Here’s how dopamine works with food cravings and addiction: Soon after you eat certain foods, this chemical messenger in your brain arrives. Dopamine increases stimulation of your brain’s reward centers. And your brain wants to trigger this reaction again and again. That’s because your brain craves these pleasurable, rewarding experiences. And certain foods are one way for your brain to get its reward fix.

Humans aren’t alone in this. In studies where rats were fed diets rich in junk food and unhealthy snacks, the subjects adopted similar behavior to that of habitual drug users. The rats wanted more food that did them no good nutritionally in order to feel eased by the dopamine rush. The rats even refused to dine on more healthy options once they got used to the foods rich in sugar, fats, salt, and carbs. The 2009 study showed rats even went as far as starving in order to wait for the junk food that might never come.

That’s a startling example. So, what are the traditional trigger foods and drinks that can influence this process in your brain? Unfortunately, there are a lot.

What are Among the Most Addictive Foods?

They’re usually the best tasting ones. And that’s maddening. A food addiction researcher gave her rundown in a recent study. The results showed that processed foods higher in fat and glycemic load were “most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors.” Here’s a few of the most addictive foods:

  • Pizza: Of course, this delicious combination of carbs, salt, and fat is near the top of the list. You’ve probably asked yourself: “How many slices should I eat?” The answer, is one, if any. But pizza is hard to resist. That’s bad, because it’s usually filled with processed ingredients. It also has more fat per bite than most healthy meals. Combine that with the salt and you have a perfect recipe for a flood of dopamine that sets you down a path toward another slice. You know you don’t need it, but your brain wants it.
  • Sweet treats: Chocolate, cookies, cake, and ice cream are all chock-full of sugar and fat that can easily convince your brain that you need more. Offsetting the savory of your meal with a sweet dessert is common. But it isn’t a healthy choice. Those sugars can piggyback an unhealthy main course decision and lead you to overeat when you don’t need to. And you’ll get a lot of extra calories, fat, and sugar, too.
  • Fried foods: From what you already know, there’s no surprise here. French fries and potato chips are salty and usually baked or fried in oils that don’t do your body or brain much good. As out-of-this-world good as fried delicacies can be, at times, they’re the perfect recipe for unhealthy and addictive decision making.

As is the case with everything in life, moderation is key. If you’re going to have a glass of red wine at dinner for heart health, have one, not four. If you’re going to have a cheat day once a week, try and stick to it. Don’t weave your way through the kitchen to plunder your snack drawer every day. Also: It might be wise to avoid having a snack drawer at all.

What About Soda?

Soft drinks are just as addictive as fatty, salty foods. And consumption of soda has a direct correlation to negative nutritional and health effects, as well as weight gain. One study in 2007 found a clear link between soft drink intake and increased energy intake—in other words, getting more calories in a day. Drinking soda was also associated with lower intake of calcium and other nutrients. Soda drinkers are also at a higher risk for medical issues down the road.

So why is soda so addictive? Well, it’s not that hard to decipher. Non-diet soft drinks are filled with a serious amount of sugar. And they sometimes pair the sweet with high levels of caffeine.

You might counter with, “What about diet soda?” Turns out research shows that diet soft drinks can also contribute to weight gain. Artificial sweeteners are designed to create similar reactions in the brain as normal sugar. And one study suggests those who regularly take in artificial sweeteners may crave more sweets, choose sweet food over nutritious food, and find healthier options like fruit less appealing. This can lead to weight gain.

Overcoming Food Addiction

This is the hard part. But you don’t need to feel guilty for a sudden hankering for food or soda. It happens to everyone. And beating yourself up about these cravings isn’t a productive way to deal with food addictions. Understanding what causes these addictions is the first step, but there are more things you can and need to do.

Start by planning ahead to figure out how to manage your intake. The expert advice is pretty simple: Get ahead of these urges. That means dumping your snack drawer, and stocking your house with healthier options.

Luckily, you can also trick your cravings. If you’re craving a sweet, go the route of natural sugar and have fruit. If you’re looking for something more filling, plan out a meal you know will satisfy—starting with dietary fiber and protein is a good start.

A meal-prep plan for those dealing with food addiction entails spacing out meals throughout the day—anywhere from four to five hours between eating. You should include fresh fruit and vegetables in as many of the snacks and meals as possible.

You can break the cycle of food addiction, though. It takes daily focus, determination, and planning. An ideal daily routine could go something like:

  1. A strong start: Healthy foods might not have the same amount of clout in your memory bank as the sort of foods that set you back in your fight against food addiction. But there are still good substitutes. For example, breakfast foods to put on your list include eggs, granola, bananas and strawberries. Sure, it might take a little longer to prep, but that sounds like a tasty start instead of a Pop Tart or cinnamon roll.
  2. Include the fresh stuff: Find the time for fruit and veggies. Getting in the habit of including vegetables and fruit in at least two meals a day is a good start. That will help you turn to fruits and veggies on a regular basis. Making this a habit will help in your fight against unhealthy food addictions.
  3. Think ahead: Understand your cravings and try to plan ahead. If you know you love fried foods, find a healthier option—maybe roasted sweet potatoes instead of French fries—and have it ready to go. Making a healthy choice more convenient can help you short-circuit your cravings before they take over.
  4. Learn to trick your brain: Dopamine can be released by foods that benefit your stomach and overall health in the long-term, too. In fact, healthy food like spinach, watermelon, avocados, and even tofu, can offer rewarding neurological responses. If you’re looking for alternatives for fatty or salty snacks, carrots and hummus work, as does peanut butter and apple slices.

Win the Battle, Because You Can

Overcoming food addiction can be a long, painful process. You have to take it meal-by-meal, and day-by-day. But there’s hope. You can do it. And your attitude is a critical part of the battle. Know you can do it. And then start taking small actions and building on them.

Bookmark this article as a reminder of the science behind food addictions, how they occur, and a step-by-step guide to overcoming them. Start by identifying triggers and then make healthy substitutions. Soon you will have the power to say no to your cravings. Because you will have discovered healthy alternatives you enjoy and you’ll also understand the dangerous path quick-fix foods can present.