Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements

The importance of nutrition for human health has long been known. Prior to 1960, interest in this field focused mainly on the prevention of acute nutrient deficiency diseases, such as scurvy, rickets, and pellagra. Some 50 essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, cofactors, essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids) were identified. Recommended daily intakes for those nutrients were also developed. The recommendations proved valuable in eliminating acute nutrient deficiency diseases.

During the past decades, focus has shifted to the role of diet and nutrition in long-term health. Nutrition has shown to play a role in the long-term health of heart, bones, joints, eyes, nervous system, and immune system.

Unfortunately, these associations are difficult to study, in part because of the timeframes involved. Many of these interactions take decades (or lifetimes) to study. It is very difficult to conduct research spanning more than several years in length. Despite this, advances in epidemiological and clinical research have uncovered a great deal of information about the impact of diet and nutrient intakes on long-term health.

In recent years, researchers have paid more attention to nutritional supplements as possible components of a healthy diet. These studies have used a wide variety of research methods and have produced positive and negative results. Some supplementation has become an accepted part of modern healthcare practices. This includes, for example, the role of calcium and vitamin D supplements in maintaining healthy bone density and the role of folic acid supplements in preventing certain birth defects. In other areas (like the role of antioxidant supplementation in heart health), results have been less consistent, and firm conclusions remain controversial.


The following is a list of peer-reviewed research examining possible health benefits of nutritional supplements and functional foods. This list is not exhaustive. Papers have been selected on the basis of scientific merit and relevance to the field—regardless of whether positive or negative results were obtained. This list provides you with a good cross-section of scientific literature, with hopes of contributing to a better understanding of the current state of nutritional research.

For convenience, references have been sorted by health issue:

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  10. Baur JA, Sinclair DA. Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence. 2006. Nat Rev Drug Discov 5(6):493-506.
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  12. Berman M, ERman A, Ben-Gal T, Dvir D, Georghiou GP, Stamler A, Vered Y, Vidne BA, Aravot D. Coenzyme Q10 in patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. 2004. Clin Cardiol 27(5):295-9.
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  17. Brouwer IA, van Rooij IA, van Dusseldorp M, Thomas CM, Blom HJ, Hautvast JG, Eskes TK, Steegers-Theunissen RP. Homocysteine-lowering effect of 500 microg folic acid every other day versus 250 microg/day. 2000. Ann Nutr Metab 44(5-6):194-7.
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  21. Bucher HC, Cook RJ, Guyatt GH, Lang JD, Cook DJ, Hatala R, Hunt DL. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 1996. JAMA 275(13):1016-22.
  22. Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 2002. Am J Med 112(4):298-304.
  23. Chakraborti S, Chakraborti T, Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S, Ghosh S. Protective role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases: A review. 2002. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 238:163-79.
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  25. Cheng S, Massaro JM, Fox CS, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, McCabe EL, Robins SJ, O’Donnell CJ, Hoffmann U, Jacques PF, Booth SL, Vasan RS, Wolf M, Wang TJ. Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study. 2010. Diabetes 59(1):242-8.
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  34. Devaraj S, Jialal I. Alpha tocopherol supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and monocyte interleukin-6 levels in normal volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients. 2000. Free Radic Biol Med 29(8):790-2.
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  45. Emmert DH, Kirchner JT. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of heart disease. 1999. Arch Fam Med 8(6):537-42.
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  47. Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA. Vitamin C Intake and Mortality among a Sample of the United States Population. 1992. Epidemiology 3:194-202.
  48. Eritsland J, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I, Hostmark AT. Long-term metabolic effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with coronary artery disease. 1995. Am J Clin Nutr 61:831-6.
  49. Fang JC, Kinlay S, Beltrame J, Hikiti H, Wainstein M, Behrendt D, Suh J, Frei B, Mudge GH, Selwyn AP, Ganz P. Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomized trial. 2002. Lancet 359(9312):1108-13.
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  52. Fotino AD, Thompson-Paul AM, Bazzano LA. Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on heart failure: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2013 Feb;97(2):268-75.
  53. Fotherby MD, Williams JC, Forster LA, Craner P, Ferns GA. Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons. 2000. J Hypertens 18(4):411-5.
  54. Freedman JE, Parker C, Li L, Perlman JA, Frei B, Ivanov V, Deak LR, Iafrati MD, Folts JD. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. 2001. Circulation 103:2792-8.
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  61. Goodfellow J, Bellamy MF, Ramsey MW, Jones CJH, Lewis MJ. Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. 2000. J Am Coll Cardiol 35(2):265-70.
  62. Green D, O’Driscoll G, Rankin JM, Maiorana AJ, Taylor RR. Beneficial effect of vitamin E administration on nitric oxide function in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. 1998. Clin Sci (Colch) 95(3):361-7.
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  84. Kelley DS, Siegel D, Vemuri M, Mackey BE. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men. 2007. Am J Clin Nutr 86:324-33.
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  90. Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y, Bostick RM. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. 1996. N Engl J Med 334(18):1156-62.
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